India and china are the two Trans Himalayan Asian giants. They have historical and cultural links. India became independent in 1947 and china in 1949. In October 1950 china established military control over Tibet. Chinese invasion of Tibet was a prelude to the invasion of India.
CAUSES OF THE WAR
DIFFERENCES OVER THE MAP –
In 1954 china published a map which showed most Indian territories as Chinese. When the Chinese premier who came to India, Nehru brought to his notice and he promised to revise the map but the Chinese never did revise the map.
BORDER DISPUTES –
India and china had traditional boundary of 4250 length. The Indian map was authentic and precise confirmed to unchanging natural features. But the differences over the borders remained unreconciled.
REJECTION OF MAC MOHAN LINE –
The Mac Mohan line of the Indian boundary was drawn by the British. But china clearly refused to recognize the Mac Mohan line stating that it was drawn during the colonial period.
CHINESE INVASION OF TIBET –
China invaded Tibet to suppress the revolt in the kampa region. India condemned the Chinese position in Tibet and also concluded panchsheel argument with china in 1954.
POLITICAL ASYLUM TO DALAI LAMA –
The Chinese invasion of Tibet resulted in Dalai Lama’s flight to India with 1 laky Tibetans and sought political asylum in 1950. The government of India granted political asylum to them. Peking condemned India for giving asylum to Dalai Lama and his followers.
CHINA’S COMPULSION –
China was jealous of India’s growing influence among the non-aligned nations. China could not get a UN seat nor could it establish its leadership of afro-Asia. If India gave up its policy of peace under the pressure then china could easily replace India and could lead the countries of Asia and Africa.
CHINESE INTRUSION –
Chinese troops started intruding in Indian territories and set up camps in June 1955. The Chinese started building singiang-tibet road that crossed the eastern ladakh. By 1957 the Chinese intrusion became a regular feature. In 1959, 19 Indians in ladakh were killed which created a strong anti-china feelings in India. All these intrusion and culimirations the invasion in 1962.
COURSE OF THE WAR
Chinese intrusion was intensified at the beginning of 1962. The Chinese crossed ladakh and encircled the galwan valley. They kept on exchanging fire with the Indian troops. 20th October 1962, the Chinese troops mounted a massive attack on the eastern and western attack sectors. On 22nd October a state of emergency was imposed in India when the Chinese troops were in position to threaten Assam, china called in unilateral (case fire on 20 kms north of Mac Mohan line) and the war was over.
IMPACT OF THE WAR
It was a big blow to the indo-Sino relations and to India’s prestige at international level.
The defeat lowered India’s position, status among the afro- Asian nations.
It encourages Pakistan to think in terms of military solution of Kashmir.
Nehru’s policy of non-alignment received severe setback.
It exposed India’s military weakness in the Indian army.
There was severe setback to Indian plans for economic development since India was forced to spend to increase the defense.
The congress lost 3 parliamentary elections in succession.
In august 1963, Nehru faced the first ever no confidence motion in his life.
Keywords: Indo -China war, Dalai Lama, Border dispute, Non-alignment, MAC MOHAN LINE