Geography of Tourism – I

Tourism- Definition – Motivational factors – Types – Religious, Bio, Leisure, Nature, Medical, Cultural, Adventure, Coastal Tourism – A3 Concept [Attraction, Accommodation, Accessibility]

 Definitions of Tourism

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of nonresidents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.”

In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.”

In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism as “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.

  • Travel Motivators

Without people’s motivation to travel, there would be no tourist industry. The prospective traveler’s  selection of a destination is sometimes likened to a trip to a travel supermarket, where the shopper walks in and selects the destination from any one of the thousands of choices. Although there are hundreds of thousands of possible destinations, the perspective of the traveler is usually circumscribed by a number of factors. These include time, attitude, family responsibilities, finance, education, physical health and well-being. Travel motivators can be defined as those factors that create a person’s desire to travel.

Motivators are the internal psychological influence affecting individual’s choices. Motivations operate on individuals travel purchases choices within the framework already set by the determinants of demand. Several attempts have been made to study as to why people wish to travel or become tourists.

McIntosh has stated that basic travel motivators may be grouped into the following three broad categories:

Physical Motivators

These are related to physical relaxation and rest, sporting activities and specific medical treatment. The entire above are concerned with the individual bodily health and well being.

Interpersonal Motivators

These are related to a desire to visit and meet relatives, friends or forge new friendships, simply to escape from the routine of everyday life.

Cultural Motivators

These are related to visiting places to know about other people, places, their ethnic background, tradition, life style etc.

Status and Prestige Motivators

These are identified with the needs of personal esteem and personal development. These motivators also relate to travel for business or professional interests, for the purpose of education or pursuit of hobbies. Motivation for travel covers a broad range of human behavior and experiences.

 Breaking down and elaborating these will give reasons as to why more and more people engage in tourism.

The breakdown of broad categories would result in the following factors: Factors of Motivation


Getting away from the routine of everyday life is perhaps the most important motive of all in recent times. The individual’s desire and need for pure pleasure is very strong. An individual’s likes to have fun excitement and a good time whenever possible. The significance of the pleasure factor is widely utilized by travel agents and tour operators who are astute psychologist when it comes to selling tours.

Relaxation, Rest and Recreation

Industrialization and urbanization has created great pressures on modern living. The stress and strain of modern city life has made it more necessary than ever before for people to get away from all this and relax in an atmosphere which is more peaceful and healthy.

Relaxation is very essential to keep the body and mind healthy. There are may be various forms of relaxation and rest. To some it is secured by a change in the environment. Others seek relaxation in seeing new places, meeting strangers and seeking new experiences.

Health Along with the modernization of this world, the environment and the living beings are also getting polluted. This cause for may health related issues and people spend money and travel to distant places in search of good treatment. As India is one of the best destinations where health and medical tourism is popular, many travel from west to Indian cities in search of cheap and the best medical treatments.

Participation in Sports

There has been an increasing participation in a wide variety of sporting activities such as mountaineering, walking skiing, sailing, fishing, sunbathing, trekking and surf -riding etc. more and more people these days are taking holidays involving physical activities. In recent years there has been a big increase in sporting holidays. The visitors go to places primarily to indulge in a sporting activity to which all there are directed.

Curiosity and Culture

An increasing number of people are visiting different lands especially those places having important historical or cultural associations with the ancient past or those places holding special art festivals, music festivals, theaters and other cultural events of importance. Curiosity has been one of the major reasons for tourism. There has always been curiosity in man about foreign lands, people and places. This curiosity has been stimulated by more education. International events like Olympic Games, Asian games, national celebrations, exhibitions, special festivals, etc. attract thousands of tourists.

Ethnic and Family

This includes visiting one’s relatives and friends, meeting new people and seeking new friendships. A large number of people make travel for interpersonal reasons. There is considerable travel by people wanting to visit friends and relatives. A large number of Americans visit European countries in order to see their families or because they feel they are visiting their homeland.

Spiritual and Religious

Travel for spiritual reasons has been taking place since a long time. Visiting religious places has been one of the earliest motivators of travel. A large number of people have been making pilgrimages to religious or holy places. This practice is widespread in many parts of the world.

Professional or Business

Attending conventions and conferences related to the professions, industry or commerce or to some organizations to which the industry or commerce or to some organization to which the individual belongs has become very popular. Many countries, in order to attract more tourists, have established grand convention complexes where all kinds of modern facilities are provided for business meetings, seminars and conventions.

  • Types of Tourism
  1. a) Domestic Tourism:

It is also known as internal as well as national tourism. Generally, Domestic tourism means the movement of people outside their normal domicile to other areas within the boundaries of the nation. In fact, they find it easy to do so because there was neither currency nor language or document problems. Domestic tourism does not involve any balance of payment implications, however, it may be substitute for international tourism and therefore results in saving foreign currency.

  1. b) International Tourism:

International tourism involves the movement of people among different countries in the world. In other words, when people travel to nation other than their own country in which they normally live and which has its separate identity in terms of political, economic and social set up. International movement of people involves various types of legal and financial formalities to be met before departing from his/her country. International tourism comprised of two forms of tourism. 1) Inbound Tourism and 2) Outbound Tourism.

  1. c) Leisure Tourism:

Leisure, “the free or unoccupied time during which the person may indulge in rest, recreation, etc”2 , is the apt Notes 34 situation when tourism is sought in its full earnest. The travel purposes in leisure include activities of holiday, sports (nonprofessional), cultural events and visits to friends and relatives (VFR). Tourism activities on these aspects get termed on their focus of travel as Beach Tourism, Mountain Tourism, Sports Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Ethnic Tourism, Religious Tourism and Health Tourism and So on.

  1. d) Business Tourism:

Business, which is one’s work, occupation or profession, is the other situation, which necessitates travel. This travel helps people to attend to meetings, exhibitions and trade fairs, conference and conventions, thereby the partakers experience all the sectors of tourism which formulate this classification namely Business Tourism. Though all the activities under this classification gets termed as Business Tourism itself, in the recent past of 1990’s it is being referred to as MICE an acronym for Meetings, Incentives, Conference and Exhibitions.

  1. e) Historical Tourism:

Any Tourism activity that is taken-up with Historical Locations as the Tourist Attraction. This form of tourism was the first form of tourism that many tourists loved to participate. Only recently, the tourism forms are taking a business dimensions.

  1. f) Cultural Tourism:

It is the form of tourism that takes culture of the destination as the attraction. Culture it should be remembered is the form of expression of the people of the destination through their life-style. Culture is express through their food, shelter, clothing, art, architecture, music, dance, drama and any uniqueness of the location. This form of tourism has a great opportunity of interaction and participation for the visitors

  1. g) Social Tourism:

A type of tourism that provides help to a section of the society for the experience of tourism. This concept came into existence in the fifties, especially in Europe. In reference to M. Andre’ poplimont, “Social tourism is the type of tourism practiced by those who would not be able to meet the cost without social intervention, i.e., without the assistance of an association to which individuals belong

  1. h) Mass Tourism:

The concept of mass tourism is the contribution of paid holidays, development of transportation, communication and information technology. Mass tourism is primarily s quantitative notion and refers to participation of very large number of people in tourism activities.

i)Special Interest Tourism:

Tourism activities emerging on the aspect of special Interest are specifically known as special interest tourism or commonly known as Adventure tourism. To cite a few of this type are Trekking, Rafting, Bungee Jumping, Scuba diving, Snow skiing, Hand gliding, Rock claiming and winter tourism.

  1. j) Eco Tourism:

Eco-tourism means travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objectives of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery, wild plants and animals along with existing cultural manifestation of the locality. Eco-tourism being the answer or the alternative to mass tourism gets termed as Nature tourism, Green tourism, Responsible tourism, Appropriate tourism and Alternative tourism depending upon the degree of focus on the aspect of conservation of nature.

Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism. Its purpose may be to educate the traveller, to provide funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Since the 1980s ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavour by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention. Several university programs use this description as the working definition of ecotourism.

Generally, ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is intended to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.

Other forms of Tourim

Golf Tourism

Golf has been enjoyed by many for a long time. Earlier it was enjoyed as a sport but in recent times it has developed into a hot tourism product. Many tourist organizations plan promotional packages to woo the golf tourist especially from Japan where the green fees are very high. These tourists take exclusive golfing holidays wherein their accommodation is also arranged near the course and they return after serious golf playing.

Indigenous Tourism

Indigenous Tourism is connected to the visit and stay of people at places where aboriginals of a region is settled to know about their life style and culture. It is part of tribal tourism or rural tourism where people get connected with the life of tribes. Indigenous peoples are ethnic minorities who have been marginalized as their historical territories became part of a state. In international or national legislation they are generally defined as

having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory and on their cultural or historical distinctiveness from politically dominant populations. The concept of indigenous peoples defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization and oppression by nation states that may still be formed from the colonising populations, or by politically dominant ethnic groups.

Medical Tourism

Medical tourism is defined as the movement of public for cost – worthy medical services from highly developed nations to other areas of the world for medical care. Medical tourism is different from the traditional model of international medical travel where patients generally journey from less developed nations to major medical centers in highly developed countries for medical treatment that is unavailable in their own communities. While the general definition of the Medical tourism above covers most of the aspects of the phenomenon, there is no international consensus yet on the name of the phenomenon. Medical tourism is often related to globalisation and neo-liberal healthcare policies which in this case considered to undermine the quality and quantity of the services available to middle class in home countries.

Services typically sought by travelers include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/ hip), cardiac surgery, dental surgery, and cosmetic surgeries. Individuals with rare genetic disorders may travel to another country where treatment of these conditions is better understood. However, virtually every type of health care, including psychiatry, alternative treatments, convalescent care and even burial services are available. Over 50 countries have identified medical tourism as a national industry. However, accreditation and other measures of quality vary widely across the globe, and some destinations may become hazardous or even dangerous for medical tourists.

 MICE Tourism

Meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions. MICE is used to refer to a particular type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance, are brought together for some particular purpose.

Recently, there has been an industry trend towards using the term meetings industry to avoid confusion from the acronym. Other industry educators are recommending the use of “Events Industry” to be an umbrella term for the vast scope of the meeting and events profession. Most components of MICE are well understood, perhaps with the exception of incentives. Incentive tourism is usually undertaken as a type of employee reward by a company or institution for targets met or exceeded, or a job well done. Unlike the other types of MICE tourism, incentive tourism is usually conducted purely for entertainment, rather than professional or educational purposes.

MICE in tourism industry generally includes a well-organized program centered on a particular theme. These themes may include a profession, a hobby, or an educational matter. With its own trade shows and practices, such tourism has a specialized area. MICE events follow a process of marketing and bidding. Usually bid on by expertise convention department set in particular nations, this procedure is often performed several months or even years ahead of the actual event.

Famous MICE Destination – Using off-site workdays to motivate staff and improve their productivity is gaining popularity in the corporate world. Companies are also realizing the benefits to their business when regional dealer conferences, incentive trips and focused business meetings are organized in exotic locations which include sightseeing, recreation and shopping. MICE is used to refer to a particular type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance, are brought together for some particular purpose.

 Responsible Tourism

Responsible Tourism is tourism ‘that creates better places for people to live in, and better places to visit’. The 2002 Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism in Destinations defines Responsible Tourism as follows:

“Responsible Tourism is tourism which:

➢ Minimises (same as minimizes (the only accepted spelling in North America)) negative economic, environmental and social impacts

Generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well being of host communities Improves working conditions and access to the industry

➢ Involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances

➢ Makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity Provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues

➢ Provides access for physically challenged people

➢ Is culturally sensitive, encourages respect between tourists and hosts, and builds local pride and confidence Is integrate in the local ecosystem”

Responsible tourism is fast becoming a global trend. Operators, destinations and industry organisations in South Africa, the United Kingdom, United States, the Gambia, India, Sri Lanka, are already practicing Responsible Tourism, and this list is growing. Recognising the global significance of Responsible Tourism World Travel Market, one of the world’s largest travel exhibitions, has created World Responsible Tourism Day, to be celebrated annually during November. World Responsible Tourism Day is endorsed by the World Tourism Organisation and World Travel and Tourism Council.

Rural Tourism

Rural tourism focuses on participating in a rural lifestyle. It can be a variant of ecotourism. Any village can be a tourist attraction, and many villagers are very hospitable. Agriculture is becoming highly mechanized and therefore requires less manual labor. This is causing economic pressure on some villages, leading to an exodus of young people to urban areas. There is however, a segment of urban population that is interested to visit the rural areas and understand their perspective. This segment has been rapidly growing in the past decade and has led to Rural tourism becoming a good business prospect.

Rural tourism in Latvia is a form of tourism taking place in rural areas or settlements, providing employment and income to local population, and offering individualised holiday products to consumers.

Rural tourism is based on accommodation service which is complemented by additional services/facilities relying on the local social, cultural and natural resources, which are exploited according to the principles of sustainable development.

Spiritual Tourism

Many people when living under conditions of stress turn to spirituality. The Eastern world is considered to be very spiritual with many of the new age Gurus and their hermitages. This takes the form of another tourism product, that is, spiritual tourism. Tourists visit places to attend spiritual discourses and meditation workshops. For example, The Osho Foundation, Art of Living Foundation which have centres all over the world, Buddhist Monasteries and Ashrams.

The Spiritual tourism has two parts namely religious tourism and pilgrimage tourism. Religious tourism is just a visit where as pilgrimage tourism is a penance.

 Wellness Tourism or Health Tourism

The core of wellness tourism in India is the ancient medical system of Ayurveda combined with the system of Yoga. Indeed, many states in the country have already taken great strides to promote wellness as a tourist product. Wellness tourism may be described as travelling for the purpose of revitalizing one’s health and spiritual well-being especially through alternative healing practices.

Alternative Tourism

In general, alternative tourism is an alternative to the mass standard tourism as philosophy and attitude. The main accent in these travels is the preserved natural environment, authentic atmosphere and cuisine, and local traditions

The alternative forms of tourism combine tourist products or separate tourist services, different from the mass tourism by means of supply, organization and the human resource involved. These are rural, ecotourism, adventure (biking, horseback riding, snowshoeing, ski mountaineering, rafting, diving, caving, climbing), thematic tourism – connected with the cultural and historical heritage, the esoteric, religion, wine, traditional cuisine, ethnography and traditional music and handicrafts. (As per Bulgarian Association for Alternative Tourism)

Bio Tourism

Bio-tourism, as promoted by B.I.O. since 1985, encourages environmental and cultural appreciation in tourism, as well as an international exchange of experiences on the basis of environmental preservation. It focuses on informed travel choices and supports local economies. In bio-tourism, travellers come into intimate contact with the environment and culture of the area being visited in a manner that is not destructive, but constructive. Cultural diversity, tradition, history and local tradition are the cornerstones of bio-tourism. As environmental solutions are long-term goals, travellers are also encouraged to fully claim their role in preserving the natural and cultural assets of their destinations for the future welfare and shared prosperity of the region and the world.

For B.I.O., bio-tourism is not just a conventional travel plan. It is a way for all peoples of the world to explore humanity’s natural and cultural heritage, and to achieve cooperation and mutual understanding.



Tourism attractions, like good weather, are very important factors in tourism. Scenery or the landscape consisting of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, forests, deserts, etc., are strong forces attracting people to visit them. Breathtaking mountain scenery and the coastal stretches exert a strong fascination for the tourist. Many countries which are developing tourists industries are using the legacy of their historical past as their major tourist attractions in India, the world- famous caves of Ajanta and Ellora are an example.


Accessibility is a very crucial factor as it is a means by which a tourist can reach the area where attractions are located. Tourist attractions of whatever type would be of little importance if their locations are inaccessible by the normal means of transport. If the tourist attractions are located at places where no transport can reach or where there are inadequate transport facilities, these become of little value. The tourist attractions which are located near to the tourist generating markets and are linked by a network of efficient roads and can be easily reached by air receive the maximum number of tourists. The distance factor also plays an important role in determining a tourist’s choice of a destination.


Facilities are a necessary aid to the tourist centre. For a seaside resort, facilities like swimming, boating, yachting, surf riding and other facilities like dancing, recreation and amusements are important for every tourist centre. Amenities can be of two types: natural, e.g., beaches, sea-bathing, possibilities of fishing, opportunities for climbing, trekking, viewing, etc. and manmade, e.g., various types of entertainments facilities which cater to the special needs of the tourists. Excellent sandy beaches, sheltered in sunshine with palm and coconut trees and offering good bathing conditions form very good tourist attractions. Certain other natural amenities such as spacious waters for the purpose of sailing, or the opportunities for fishing and shooting are also very important.