CAUSE FOR LINGUISTIC STATES:
The boundaries of the British Indian Provinces were drawn primarily to sub serve colonial interest to enforce law and order, to collect land revenue and to divide the rule. hence the pre-independence provinces were multi-linguistic,multi-cultural and heterogenous.for example, the Madras Presidency consisted of four large distinct linguistic areas ,-Tamil ,Telugu,Malayalam And Kannada-apart from the Oria speaking of five distinct Sindhi patches in the northern part.similarly,Bombay Presidency consisted Gujarathi,Rasjathani,Marathi And Kanarese speaking people
Principle of linguistic basis:
The Indian national congress accepted the side as early b1908,even The British Government had recognized this principle in The Government of India dispatch of 1911 and on that basis Bihar was separated from Bengal .in 1919 the congress involved masses in the freedom struggle by appealing through their mother tongues ,in 1920,the congress, at its Nagpur session, formally accepted the Linguistic Reorganization of Provinces.
The constitution assembly, deliberating on the draft report, attempetd to find out a solution to the problem of linguistic reorganization of India On 17 June 1948, they are:
1. What new provinces should be created on linguistic basis,
2. State the administrative, economic, finance and other consequences of the creation of new provinces,
3. Report on the administrative implications of the formation of the adjoining territories.
The Dar Commission toured the country and found that there were vigorous demand for the linguistic re-distribution of India The Commission came to the conclusion that because the country was facing with serious problems such as communal tension, political uncertainity,economic stability, foreign aggression,incomlete intergation.On the basis of the Report of the Dar Commissoin,the Constituent Assembly decided not to incorporate the linguistic basis of reorganization of states in the Constitutions.
THE JVP COMMITTEE, 1949
The Dar Commission Report provoked an uproar throughout India .The problem of linguistic reorganization of states was aggravated and remained politically volatile, To pacify the proponents of linguistic states, the Congress in December 1948,appointeda high power committee consisting of Jawaharlal Nehru,Vallabhal Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya,popularly known as JVP Committee. Since the JVP report failed to concede the demand immediately, there were popular protest movements for linguistic states reorganization throughout the country and particularly in Andhra.
FORMATION OF ANDHRA STATE, 1953
A LONG PERIOD PENDING DEMAND
The Telugu –speaking people of Andhra had been clamoring for a separate Andhra state for long .They were deeply disappointed with Dar Commission and JVP Reports ,since they did not meet their long-pending demand.
AGITATION FOR ANDHRA STATE
Provoked by the JVP report, the Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee requested the Government of India to form Andhra Pradesh without delay. But the government delayed the process. The government of India which was not very keen on the creation of Andhra Province look advantage of Prakasam’s dissenting note and shelved the issue
SWAMI SITARAM’S FAST, 1951:
The Andhra public was sore at the lackadaisical attitude of the Congress High Command and the Government of India intensified he agitation. Swami Sitaram began his fast unto-death on 15 August 1951, which created an explosive situation in and he ended his 35 days fast on 20th September on the advice of Acharya Vinoba.
POTTI SRIMULU’S FAST AND DEATH, 1952
Potti Srimulu, a veteran freedom fighter, commended his fast unto death on 19 October 1952 inMadras.When his fast entered its 50th day, Nehru made a statement in the Rajya Sabha that the Government would be willing to form Andhra state without Madras City provided there was general agreement among the parties concerned.Unconvienced by Nehru’s statement,Potti Srimulu continued his fast and attained martyrdom on 15 December 1952.
SEPARATE ANDHRA STATE:
The news of the death of Potti Srimulu plunged Andhra in chaos. The Government of India gave in and conceded the Andhra demand for a separate state without of course the city of Madras T.Prakasam as Chief Minister, C.M.Trivedi as governor and on October 1953,Nehru inaugurated Andhra Pradesh.
TIRUTTANI TO TAMIL NADU:
The Formation of Andhra Pradesh left the border problem unsolved.Sivagnana Gramani, patriot, freedom fighter, Tamil scholar of repute, who claimed Tiruttani tower temple.The border dispute, was left to the arbitration of H.V.Pataskar who recommended the inclusion of tiruttani to Tamil Nadu and Hosur will remain as it was. His recommendations were accepted and Tamil Nadu got Tiruttani.
THE STATE REORGANIZATION COMMISSION:
The formation of Andhra Pradesh escalated the demand for the creation of unilingual states.
FAZAL ALI COMMISSION, 1953
On 22nd December 1953, Nehru appointed States Reorganization Commission (SRC) to consider reorganization of states in its eternity .The Commission came into an end that it was neither possible nor desirable to reorganize states on a single test of either language or culture.
The SRC recommended by the for the formation of 16 states and 3 union territories. They rejected Punjab, Haryana, Suba state and Jharkhand. Commission’s proposed the retention of Punjab and Bombay bilingual states.
REACTION TO THE REPORT:
The SRC’s report led to intensified popular protests and agitations. The country appeared to be as if it were on the verge to civil war’ in some parts. Most parts of India had rejected the Commission’s proposals and expected the Government of India to come out with fresh pragmatic initiatives.
FORMATION OF MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT:
REVOLT IN MAHARASHTRA;
Maharashtra rose in revolt against the SRC for its recommendation in favour of bilingual Bombay State. There were widespread rioting and violence. In January 1956, eighty people were killed in Bombay city police firings.
Conflicting claims over Bombay city stood in the way of the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat as separate states. Several alternatives-converting Bombay into a separate city-like Vatican, Rome, a large composite state, Gujarat and Bombay city into a singl;e state were considered. Nehru vacillated.
SEPARATE STATES FORMED:
The Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti and the Mahagujarat Jan Parishad Spearheaded the movements for the formation of unilingual. The demand for the creation of Maharashtra with Bombay as its capita was louder and stronger. In November 1956, the State Reorganization Act mostly based on SRC Report was passed. Finally in May 1960 the government of India bifurcated the composite Bombay. Bombay was included Maharashtra and Ahmadabad became the capital of Gujarat; ultimately, linguistic longing of the people won the battle.
DEMAND FOR PUNJAB SUBA:
The Report of the States Reorganization Commission fanned the fire of the Sikh demand for a separate Punjab Suba, since it suggested the formation of Greater Punjab in which Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) Himachal Pradesh was to be merged. However, the demand for Punjabi Suba continued to gather momentum and it was finally solved by Prime Minister Indira Gandi in 1966.
DEMAND FOR TELANGANA:
The demand for separate Telangana in Andhra region even during the freedom struggle was the manifestation of regionalism. The Telangana Movement was received and continued against the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Movement assumed the form of peasant struggle against the medieval feudal autocratic rule of the Nizam.the Telangana movement was formally withdrawn soon after Hyderabad was integrated with the Indian Union. The Telangana movement was however the most widespread ,most intense and most organized attempt.