Causes of the war
Kashmir remained a bone of contention India and Pakistan. India consistently maintained that Kashmir was an inseparable part of India and Pakistan disputed India’s claim. Encouraged by the strategic support given by the US and diplomatic friendship extended by China, Pakistan decided to impose a military solution on India.
1) to create tension along Indian borders:
2) to instigate Kashmiris against India:
3) and to promote India into war.
Course of the war
Aggression of run of Kutch April 1965
In April 1965, two divisions of Pakistan army crossed the border and occupied parts of the Rann of Kutch. During this intrusion, Pakistan has deployed us Military Hardware including the Patton Tanks. On 1 January 1966, a ceasefire came into force, thanks to the mediation by British prime minister Harold Wilson and it was agreed that both the armies would go back to the position status quo ante.
Attack on Kashmir September 1965
Pakistan President Field Marshal Ayub Khan launched an all-out attack on Jammu and Kashmir on 1 September 1965. The Pakistan army under the cover of American Patton Tanks crossed the International border into the Chamb area in Jammu.
Instead of meeting the enemy army in Jammu, Shastri ordered a direct attack on West Pakistan across the international borders. The Air Force, Indian Army penetrated into Pakistan Territory of West Punjab moved all along the border and reached the striking distance of Lahore and Sialkot. Pakistan’s main armoured division was destroyed at the Battle of Khemkaran. Both the sides suffered heavy casualties.
Defeated and driven to the wall, Field Marshall President of Pakistan desperately appeal to the US President Lyondon Johnson to the interview. UN Secretary General proposed a ceasefire. On 20 September 1965, the UN Security Council, adopted a resolution, jointly sponsored by the USA and USSR, calling for ceasefire from to 22 September. India and Pakistan had agreed to ceasefire.
The Tashkent Agreement, Jan 1966
The historical tripartite summit meeting was held at Tashkent in the Soviet Uzbekistan between 4 and 10 January 1966. It was presided over to Kosygin. The Tashkent Declaration was signed on 10 January 1966 by India and Pakistan. According to the 9 point declaration, both countries agreed to
1) take all steps to create good neighbourly relations
2) withdrawal of armed forces not later than 25 February 1966 to the respective positions they held prior to 5 August 1965,
3) bilateral relations upon the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other,
4) discourage propaganda directed against the other country,
5) restore normal diplomatic relations between the two countries, 6) implement the existing agreement and take measures for the restoration of economic cultural relations,
7) carry out exchange of the Prisoners of War,
8) hold the discussion on immigrants, refugees and return of property and assets taken over by either side and 9) hold high-level meeting to resolve concerns of mutual interest. Unfortunately, Shastri passed away within hours signing the Tashkent agreement due to a massive heart attack.
The Congress, the Communist Party of India and the Swatantra Party welcome the declaration. But the opposition, Jansangh, and the Praja Socialist Party criticized the treaty for the unseemly compromise and unjustifiable accommodation made in the agreement.
The Tashkent agreement was indeed a historic document. It was an important milestone in the chequered history of bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. The achievement of Lal Bahadur Shastri may be summarised as follows 1) the Indo-Pak war came to an end 2) agreements besides providing a basis for normal relations between the two countries restored an international credibility and respectability for India 3) India was projected as a military power strong enough to safeguard its national sovereign interests 4) Indo- Soviet relations were stabilized with a view to protect and promote India’s economic and defence interest 5) that bilateral disputes and disagreements should be resolved through negotiations and people means