The period of Indus valley civilization was 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C. Extended from Baluchistan to Gujarat with an upward reach to Punjab. The major area included is Valley of Indus River, Rajasthan, East Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Thus encompassing Pakistan and some states of Eastern India today.
The Harappa site was discovered by Daya Ram Sahni in Montgomery (Punjab), This civilization belongs to Bronze Age. The term Indus valley civilization was termed by Sir. John Marshall. Mohenjo-Daro or Mound of Dead is in ‘Larkana” district of Sind situated at the bank of river Indus. Harappa is situated in the Montgomery District of Punjab on the bank of river Ravi. Lothal is in Gujarat on the Bhogva River near Gulf of Canal.
Wheat & Barley have been found to be important crops. Proofs of rice and pea also found. Towns divided into large rectangular blocs. Lothal, Balakol & Sutkagendor were the main ports. Lothal was in Bay of Khambat in Gujarat. Lothal, Chanhudaro & Harappa were industrial towns. Hump less bull as unicorn was the most engrave animal on Harappa seeds.
Mohenjo-Daro was discovered by Rakhaldas Banerjee in Larkana in 1922. Bead making was the most important industry. Kalibanga is a part of this civilization situated near Ganganagar, in Rajasthan. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centers in the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternately, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.
A Hunchbacked bull was worshipped animal of this civilization. The other worshipped are Pipal tree, Shiva & Matri Devi (Mother Goddess). Gold, Silver, Brass, Copper, Bronze, Lead were known to them. Rice cultivation was found in Lothal & Rangapur. Stamp of pashupati shiva was found in Mohanjodero. A bullock cart and Horse cart were found at Chanhudaro. Fakta Bird was known as sacred bird. Shilajit and Samudraphen were recovered at Mohenjo-Daro. Iron was not known to people of Indus Valley Civilization. They used canals for Irrigation. “Swastika” was a symbol given by that civilization. The main reason of downfall of this civilization was flood.
Keywords: Indus valley civilization, Mohenjo-Daro, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus River, Rajasthan, East Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh.