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History of South East Asia – BOXER REBELLION Part 2

The Origin of the Boxers Boxers was the name given by foreigners to a Chinese Secret Society called ‘I-ho-Chuan’ means ‘Righteous Harmonious Fists’.  It was an offshoot of the ‘Eight Diagram Society’.  Their programme was the practice of magic arts by which they claimed immunity to bullets.  They used charms, incantations and rituals to invoke […]

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SIGNIFICANCE AND CHARACTER OF THE REVOLUTION 1911

The important characteristics of the revolution lay in the fact that it was anti-Manchu, anti-traditional and anti-foreign with a strong dose of nationalistic ferment. The Revolution of 1911 brought the Manchu rule in China to an end.  Obviously the dynasty had lost its moral basis to rule China.  It was but inevitable that an incompetent, […]

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THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 – Part 3

Economic domination of the West The country was partitioned into so many spheres of influence by the Western powers.  In their respective spheres of influence each of the powers opened mines, constructed railways, etc., and started exploiting the region as if were a colony.  This economic domination of the West resulted in the impoverishment of […]

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THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 Part 2

6. Modern communication system and press The improved means, communication, the extended posts, telegraphs and railways helped the rapid spread of revolutionary ideas throughout the empire.  Added to this was the Chinese vernacular press which now included a number of reformist and revolutionary papers, carrying the new ferment far and wide. 7. Indifference of provincial […]

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THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 – Part 1

By 1911, the Manchu dynasty had ruled China for two hundred and sixty seven years.  While the dynasty displaced dynamism and vigour during a greater part of its life, it became comparatively weak and inefficient in its closing phase.  By the middle of the 19th century, the Manchus had to face several problem.  There was […]

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American History – Reconstruction – Part 2

Johnson’s Plan of Reconstruction Johnson retained Lincoln’s cabinet. He carried out Lincoln program who gave his approval to governments in Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana and Virginia. He issued an amnesty proclamation similar to Lincoln’s. His amnesty was not extended to property at $20, 0000 and several groups Lincoln had included. By successive proclamations, he set up […]

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