Cause and result of American war Part 1

The British defeat the French
•The British and France where the major powers of Europe
•The war between them ultimately resulted in the victory of England over France after 12 years of fighting (1702-1713)
•That victory decided the fate of the 13 colonies in America
•England acquired Acadia and Hudson bay territory
•They build forts and made friends with the red Indians
•In the war of Austrian succession in Europe (1740-1748) the colonists played an important role
•They captured the great French fortress of Louisburg but it was returned to the French
•The last of the three wars called French and Indian war in America established British supremacy there
•At the battle of Quebec in 1758 the English under general Wolfe defeated the French under general Montcalm
•The peace treaty drawn up at Paris in 1763
•According to this treaty
•A. Canada and the region east of the Mississippi(except the island of new Orleans) were ceded to England
•B. To Spain her former ally, France turned over new Orleans and her vast claims west of the Mississippi river (Louisiana)
•C. England forced Spain to hand over Florida
•Thus ended the French attempt to control north America

Significance of the French and Indian war
• trained leaders for the struggle which this colonists were soon to make in behalf of their own freedom
• addition the colonists grew more independent than ever because they no longer had to depend upon England for protection against the French
•C. the war cost England very England wanted to find some way to cover the costs.

England tightness control: the mercantile theory
•England spent money and lives for her colonial wars not for the welfare of the colonists,but to derive benefit from the colonies
•They followed mercantile theory
•The colonies where forced to serve in such a way as to make the people back home rich
•They required the colonies to produce the much needed raw materials and by making them buy the manufactured goods from the mother country even if the colony found it more profitable to export her raw materials elsewhere
•The mother counter passed restrictive laws by which the colony could not buy manufactured goods more cheaply from another country, could not manufacture her raw materials into finished products for sale at home and abroad
•The trade acts of 1660,1701,1722,1733 and 1764 made it illegal for the colonies to send certain raw material s to ports other than those of the British ports
•These materials called “enumerated articles” included tobacco, naval, supplies, furs, molasses, whale fins ,hides iron and lumber
•American businessmen were kept away from the markets of the world
•The trade acts of 1699, 1732 and 1750 forbade the colonists to manufacture woollens, furs and iron into finished goods. Such raw materials were converted in to blankets, hats, stoves and so on in England
•The laws of course sought to benefit the English shipping industry at the expense of the colonists

Growing anger among the colonists
•The colonists had become accustomed to running their own affairs
•They bought wherever they could get at the cheapest price
•They sold to any nation that would give them a high price
•The trade become more independent to Americans
•This created conflicts among Englishmen in England and Englishmen in America and also between the Englishmen in America with the Americans
•This quarrel led to the revolution because of certain events and developments which took place during the years 1765-1775

1.Beginning of an aggressive colonial policy
•The king George III in 1760 marked the beginning of strong policy towards the colonies
•They tried to increase government revenues and to tighten the commercial ties that bound the empire together

2.The royal proclamation of 1763
•According to this proclamation no one was allowed to settlement west of the Alleghany mountains angered the people of the middle and southern colonies who through hunting and trading ventures had discovered the rich possibilities of that region
•The Americans refused to respect the law
•The British government placed a standing army of 10,000 men in the colonies to enforce the proclamation line and to defend resulting from this decision and also to meet the costs of the French and Indian war
•The British government tried to collect new ventures from among the colonies

3.Direct taxation
•In 1765 stamp act calling for a direct tax was passes to raise funds
•This law required revenue stamps of varying amount, to be affixed to all legal documents, newspapers, bonds , property deeds , business contracts and other commercial agreements playing cards etc.
•It aroused violent protests own colonial legislatures had the right to levy taxes on activities carried on worthy within the colonies