This event of Manchuria made a worldwide reaction. Besides the Far East, the history of world was influenced by it. The Japanese existence as an imperialist country became visible to all and she was condemned and criticized everywhere for her imperialist and selfish policy. At this time America was involved in economic crisis. She had several interests in the Far East but because of economic and isolation policy, she did not want to fight against any country. On the other hand, America was not the member of the League of Nations so she did not want to have direct conflict with Japan but even then on January 7, 1932 A.D. she coined ‘Principle of Non-recognition’. According to which China and Japan were informed that America would not accept any other situation beyond Kellogy Briand Pact.
The problem of Manchuria was taking a fierce shape day-by-day, so the responsibility of interference was shifted to Great Britain but she too, was not prepared to hold such a vast responsibility. Russia only condemned the policy of Japan but she did not dare take any stern military action against Japan. Thus all the nations left China on her fate in a helpless condition and continued to see it like a speechless animal.
MANCHURIAN EPISODE AND THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
At last being disappointed from all corners, China launched a complaint before the League of Nations on September 21, 1931 A.D. in protest of her invasion and requested to impose restrictions on her imperialist policy. In response to it Japan replied to the League of Nations that she had taken this step for the security of her Railway track. The League of Nations stressed Japan that she should immediately remove her army from Manchuria but did not act accordingly and continued to invade Manchuria. Japan had opinion that she had taken this step for self-security so it should be taken as a proceeding of police instead of a war. The fundamental basis of it was defence and not an aggression. Using veto power Japan even did not let the resolution regarding removal of army passed in the League of Nations. At last Japan consented for the formation of a commission for the solution of this matter and a five member commission was organized under the chairmanship of Lord Lytton. This commission in his report declared Japan an aggressor country and the General Assembly condemned and criticized the act of Japan vehemently. This resolution was also passed with an overwhelming majority that Japan must act according to the recommendations of Lytton Commission. In their turn the Japanese representative left the assembly hall and one of her representative said that “Now it seems to be impossible to carry on with the League of Nations”. After this even on March 27, 1933 Japan resigned from the membership of League of Nations and China became a victim of Japanese invasion. In spite of having their best support and feeling with China. League of Nations could not take any effective step against Japan. In fact, the episode of Manchuria was a complete failure of system of joint security of the League of Nations.
CONSEQUENCES OF MANCHURIAN EPISODE
Pointing out to the results of Manchurian episode a prominent scholar E.H. Carr has written that ‘Victory of Manchuria by Japan is the most significant historical event after the First World War’. The episode of Manchuria not only destroyed the success of the Washington conference but also abolished the feeling of peaceful co-existence of ten years. As a result of it, the power conflict again emerged in the Pacific ocean. Following in the footsteps of Japan later on Germany and Italy also adopted the policy of imperialism and making invasions on different countries openly violated the international law and honour. It not only made the League of Nations ineffective but also abolished the system of joint security.