Mughal History – Jahangir – 1

Briefly discuss the chief events of Jahangir’s region.

1.Accession and early measures:

it was on october 24,1605 that Jahangir ascended the throne of his father at Agra amidst rejoicing. At that time he was thirty-six years of age . The earliest measure of the new emperor was that he fastened a golden chain having 60 bells and weighing a between the Shahburj of Agra fort and a stone pillar raised on the bank of the jamuna . The people were required to pull this chain in order to put forth their petition or complaints.

This was followed by twelve ordinances considered to be the rules of conduct (Dastur-ul-Amal). Some of the important ordinances were levying of cesses like tamgha; Mir Bahri was prohibited; building of sarais, wells and mosques along the roads was ordered ; manufacture of wine and intoxicating drugs was prohibited : in human punishments were abolished ; government hospital were to be established ; officers were not to possess any man’s house or land by force


In 1606 ,Jahangir’s son , khusro raised the standard of revolt in order to make himself the emperor . Having gathered a few hundred followers , one night he ran away from Agara with 350 horsemen on the pretence of visiting the tomb of akbar . when he reached Mathura ,Hussain beg Badakshani join him with nearly 3000 horsemen .He marched on plundering and looting the territories on the way .At panipat , he was join by Abdul Rahim , the Diwan of Lahore .He also sought help from the then Guru of Sikhs , Guru  Arjan  Dev at Tarn Taran . From there he marched to capture Lahore ana laid siege to the city. Dilawar Khan offered storng defence . Meanwhile , the emperor reached Punjab with the big force . Khusro ran away .At Bhairowal the rebels suffered a miserable a defeat . About 400 of them were slain . Khusro now decided to run away to kabul but while crossing the Chenab, he was overtaken and arrested.

3.Execution of Guru Arjan Dev (1606) :

Jahangir now summoned Guru Aajan Dev to the court to explain his conduct. He was declared criminal for having helped to rebels. His property was confiscated and he was executed mercilessly. The execution of Guru Aajan Dev’s religion and his popularity was the basic cause of Jahangir’s hostility towards him. Jahangir himself writes in his “ Memoris”that he could not tolerate the growing popularity of Guru Arajan Dev’s  creed and as such had to do away with him. However , the execution of Guru Arjun Dev greatly provoked by Sikhs, who after the murder of their religions leader transformed themselves into a strong military  sect and got ready to vengeance upon the Mughals. They declared their Guru a “martyr”.

  1. Marriage with Nur Jahan(1611):

It was in 1611, that Jahangir married this daughter of Ghias Beg after the death of her husband, Sher Afghan. Once installed as empress, this celebrated lady acquired an unbounded influence over her husband and the administration of the country. Very intelligent, brave and shrewd, she began to control virtually the whole administration on the period from 1611 to 1627 was virtually the period of Nur Jahan rather than of Jahangir.

  1. Submission of Mewar(1614):

Soon after his accession Jahangir sent a force of 20,000 horsemen under the leadership of Prince Purvez against the rana but he could not achieve any real victory and thus was recalled. In 1608 Mahabat Khan was sent at the head of a force consisting of 12,000 horses, 500 Ahadis, 200 musketeers, 60 elephants and 80 pieces of artillery. Due to the frequent changes in the command nothing substantial was accomplished. In 1614, Prince Khurram led the expedition against the valiant Rana. He was assisted by some of the ablest military officers. The Mughals began to devastate the Rajput country; villages and towns were set on fire,temples were ruthlessly demolished, children and women of the Rajputs were captured. In order too cut off the supplies of the enemies, military posts were established at strategic points so that famine and pestillence broke out among the Rajputs. The Rana was obliged to sue for peace. The terms of peace were:

  • The Rana recognised the soverignty of Jahangir.
  • He was not to attend the imperial court in person. He was to be represented at the court by his son Karan.
  • All the territories of Mewar Including Chittor, which were conquered by the Mughals since the day of Akbar, were to be resorted to the Rana.
  • The Fort of Chittor waas not to be repaired or rebuilt by the Rana.
  • Karan was to be enrolled as mansabdar of 5,000 Zat and Swar, and
  • The Rana was to supply a contingent of 1,000 horses to the imperialists.