Mughal History – Jahangir – 2

War Against Deccan (1608-1617)

Akbar had conqueredAhmednagar and Asirgarh but by the time Jahangir ascended the Throne, whole of Deccan had become independent. Jahangir resumed his Father’s imperialistic policy reggarding Decccan.

The first expedition against Ahmednagar was sent in 1608 under the leadership of Khan-i-Khanan Abdur Raim but it came to nothing. In 1610, Prince Purvez was given the command but he too come back unsuccessful. The emperor now despatched Khan jahan Lodhi, who was accompanied by distinguished generals like Bir Singh Deo, Shujaat Khan,Saif Khan and others. On reaching Burhanpur, they learnt that the imperialists under Khan-i-Khanan had sufferred a serious defeat and had also concluded a disgraceful treaty with Malik Amber, khan-i-Khanan was therefore, recalled by the emperor. With Khan Jahan Lodhi as their chief commander in 1611, the Mughals resumed the offensive in full vigour butt they were replled towards Gujarat by the marhatta cavalry which inflicted heavy losses upon them. The emperor now decided to march personally to the Deccan, but on the advice of his councillors, Khan-i-Khanan Abdur Rahim was once more appointed to the command. Forgetting the past insults and injuries he pproceeded to Deccan and defeated the emenies in a hotly contested engagement. His success excited the jealousy of other Mughal generals who poisoned the cars of the emperor against Khan-i-Khanan and the later was recalled on a charge of corruption.

  1. Loss of Qandhar(1622).:

In 1622, the Shah of Persia suddenly  laid siege to Qandhar. Jahangir was alarmed to hear this and he instantaneously ordered Prince Khurram to march to Quandhar and force the invaders to raise siege of the province, but the prince, who had turned against the empire because of the attitude of Nur Jahan towards him, refuse to comply with the royal order and Quandhar after forty five days siege was occupied by the persians. Jahangir made effect to get back the lost territories but all in vain. This was the great loss of the empire.

  1. Khurram’s Revolt(1622)

Nur jahan’s backstand intrigues drove ShahJahan to revolt in 1622. As a matter of fact, ever since her daughter, Ladli’s marriage with Shhryar, Nur jahan had been intiguing to exclude Shah Jahan from succession and to put forth the claims of her  son-in-law. Underher mischeivous influence, Jahangir confiscated some of the Jagirs of Khurram and transferred them to Shehryar. All this became intolerable for the prince. In 1622, when Shanjahan was orderedto march to Quandhar he refused to comply with the royalorder. He was sure that his absence will be fully utilised against him and that he might be excluded from the court. On the other hand, he raised the standard of revolt. Nur Jahan, with the help of Asaf and Mahabat Khan and others was determined to suppress the revolt. The first decisive battle between the imperialists and Shah Jahan was fought at Balochpur in 1623, in which prince Khurram’s party was defeated. Raya Razan Raja Bikramajit,one of the great general and Deputy of shah jahan, was killed in the encounter. Mahabat Khan pursued Shah Jahan. The situation was so serious that the emperor himself proceeded to Ajmer to direct the campaign in person. The prince ran to Ahmednagar and thence to Golkonda but could not get any help from any of these places. Greatly disappointed he went to orissa and got possession of Bengal and Bihar. He attempted to seize Oudh and Allahabad but was ultimately defeated by the emperor.

  1. REVOLT OF MAHABAT KHAN (1626) :

Nur Jahan did not like the rising influence of Mahabat Khan. She considered him as her rival for she espoused the cause pf Prince Purvez. Nur Jahan wanted to weaken Kabul and chargef him with corruption and insubordination. Not only this , she insulted his son-in-law by treating him in the most outrageous manner. Greatly incensed at this, Mahabat Khan unfurled the banner of revoly. He even imprisoned the king when the latter was going to cross the Jhelum. The Queen hadd to surrender to Mahabat Khan to join her husband in prison. With great cleverness Nur jahan liberated herself and her husband from captivity.