The emergence of Communist power in China is extricably bound up with thw personal career of Mao-Tse-Tung. The figure and personality of Mao-Tse-tung dominated China from 1920 to 1976. It is obviously not possible to understand without recognising the significant and magnificent role that Mao had played to shaping them and giving them a direction.
Born in 1893 in the province of Hunna. Mao was a rebel by nature. He rebelled against his father, rebelled against his teachers and grew to become a self-taught scholar and stateman. After completed his education at Changsa, he moved to Peking where he worked in Peking University Library as an under paid clerk.
His early political career
He was first drawn to Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and his revolutionary organization. He hears later on of the Russia Bolshevik Revolution and came under the influence of Marxism. He was one of the founder members of the Chinese Communist Party. In 1921 together with a handful ardent revolutionary, he founded the Chinese Communist Party. In the beginning the CCP was in alliance with Kuomintang Party. Thereafter his fortunes were linked with the party in which he gradually rose to a position of prominence and prestige
Autumn Harvest Uprising
The year 1927 was a critical year to the Communist but at the same time it proved as a turning point i n the political fortunes of Mao in that year at Whan, they stood up again wiped out the blood staings, buried their fallen comrades and went on fighting. The CCp in its special conference in 1927 called on peasants to take up arms.
The Long March 1934:
Between 1930 to 1932 the KMT sent four expeditions against hunan and Kiangsi bases. But their German trained armies were defeated by the red army, which was skilled in guerrilla was fare hier tactics were expressed into four
- When the enemy advances we retreat
- When the enemy halts and encamps we trouble them
- When the enemy tries to avoid a battle we attack
- When the enemy retreats we pursue
Mao‘s eight point code:
Red army has 8 point code on its march. They are
- Replace any article used
- Roll up the straw mat and handed it over to the peasants.
- Be courteous and help where ever you can
- Return all borrowed articles
- Replaced all damaged goods
- De honest in all transactions with peasants
- Pay for all articles received
- Maintain hygiene and establish latrines at a distance from people house
National united front against Japanese:
The red army subordinated all other issues to the main on of opposing Japanese aggression. Their slogans were:
“Go north to fight against Japanese”
“Form a united front”
“Chinese do not fight against Chinese”
So during the Sian incident they showed an attitude of compromise and even prepared to abandon armed insurrections and placed under the red army under the command of KMT leaders. The result was the formation of the National united front against the Japanese.
The civil war 1945-49
Following the Japanese surrender once again the mutual jealousy and rivalry between CCP and KMT raise their heads and china was once again plunged into civil war. Finally the KMT forces were driven out of china and were force to take refuge in taian. The People republic of china was Proclaimed in October 1949.
- The new democracy.
- Let a hundred flower blossom
- Rectification movement
- New revolutionary principles.
Estimate of Mao Tse Tung
He has been one of the most outstanding personalities of the 20th cent. He wielded greater power over the lives and destinies of china teeming millions than any of the former chonese emperors. His rise to power has been as quick as it ws dramatic. China now has an army which is modern powerful and disciplined capable of matching any power in the world. She has the administration machinery capable of concentrating power in their hands of men who have the determination to mobilise her resources for unified national purpose. In short he was a professional revolutionary an idealist a utopin a pragmatist and above all incisive political thinker.