THE COURSE OF THE WAR (1937-1941)
THE INITIAL STAGE
In the beginning the Japanese were able to occupy all the strategic points outside Peking. The united china faced the challenge boldly .All the political parties including the communists rallied under the banner of china who declared “ Let there be no distinction between north and south age or yough, but let all implicity and with iron discipline follow the guidance of the government”. But the modernized Japanese army proved more than a match for the Chinese .The Japanese were poised to attack priceless historical relies and art treasures of that city.
- SECOND FRONT IN SHANGAI
In August Japan opened a second front in shanghai the financial centre of china to destroy china’s economic capacity of war.
- CAPTURE OF NANKING (DECEMBER 1937)
When the Chinese heroically defended shanghai, Japan outflanked the defenses and advanced to the gates of Nanking, the capital, which was fell in December. The fall of Nanking was followed by indiscriminate massacre of 10000 civilians accompanied by atrocities. This was the notorious RAPE OF NANKING.
- OCCUPATION OF NORTH CHINA
In north the Chinese were driven south of yellow river. From Nanking a Japanese force moved northward and Tientsin was captured.
- FALL OF WUHAN AND CANTON( 1938-39)
The next stage of war was basically one of attrition, where the Japanese occupied most of the cities and lines of communication lines in the eastern half of china, while the Chinese pursued a scorched earth policy followed by strategic withdrawals and guerilla warfare.
- FORMING OF PUPPET GOVERNMENT
Inside of this success, the Japanese could not win the war. Tokyo finally resigned itself to a stalemate; it adopted the policy of living off the conquered land with the help of puppet governments. In 1937 a Mongolian autonomous government was created .With a help of a traitor wang ching-wi they founded the reformed government of Chinese at Nanking.
- NEW ORDER IN EAST ASIA
In order to establish Japanese political and economical hegemony the Japanese premier konoe proclaimed a new order in East Asia. It was a kind of japans Monroe doctrine aiming at the domination of Asiatic countries.
- STRAINED RELATIONS BETWEEN CCP AND KMT
For the smooth functioning of the united front peoples political council was organized. It was a common front in which communists’ were also admitted. Chinese red army was reorganized as 8th route army and put under the control of nationalists. But soon differences arose because of mutual jealousy, fear and misunderstanding. So the united front was functioning only in name sake. Throughout the remainder of the war, the KMT, CCP conflict was never resolved.