EVENTS LED TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN THE FAR EAST
It was japans’ imperialist ambitious design that bought the Second World War to the far ea stern theater. Japan had already become the partner to Rome, Berlin, Tokyo axis. It had signed into comintern pact with Germany and Italy. In September 1940 into Comintern pact was converted into a miliiiitary alliance against usa was the only power showed at least some amount of seriousness in the far eastern affairs, and that was able to check Japanese aggressive moves. When Japan decided to take control of indo-china, America condemned it. It also retaliated by imposing restrictions on exports from usa ato Japan on the things like iron, steel, machineries, etc The lease and land bill was amended in such a way that it allowed china to receive assistance from America. This worsened Japan usa relation.Japn immediately denounced American Japanese commercial treaty and America issued orders to freeze Japanese assets in usa.At the same time negotiations were conducted by both parties to gain time .But Japan .But attacked and destroyed pearl harbor, America’s naval base in Hawaii, and thereby declared war against usa .Thus the second world war started in far east.
CHINA AND THE ALLIES
From the outbreak of war in July 1937 to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, china fought alone. She received only sympathy, moral support and some small loans from western powers. The outbreak of the war in Europe in September 1939, however, substantially altered the foreign picture. Russia, Britain and France leaned backward to avoid irritating Japan. But in the wake of worsening Japanese- American relations usa came forward to assist china.
The attack on Pearl Harbor changed the character of the china war and transformed the foreign aid picture. Anglo-American declaration of war against Japan, and similar Japanese action against the Axis powers turned the war in Asia into a part of worldwide struggle against aggression and totalitarianism.
CHINA’S ROLE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR
It was rightly pointed out, “for china the global scale of hostilities assumed by the close of 1941 appeared as a limited blessing”. It was due to following causes.
- Although Britain and America assured china of immediate help, they were not in a position to do that. According to their war strategy, the European thereafter of war was given first and for most preference. Their fullest attention and efforts were turned towards that front. Of course, they realized the critical position of china which was in the grip of Japanese on slaught. But their position was in such condition that they were able to do only ‘lib-service’.
- As Russia had singed non-aggression pact with Japan in 1941, she was not able to come forward to help china openly. Russia was very cautious in her dealings with china in order to avoid complication with japans.
- As most of the china’s coastal areas were occupied by Japan and the pacific islands were under her occupations, the allied powers found it difficult to render any effective military help to china.
- AS all the coastal rout6es to china were closed. America’s flying tigers’ attempted to cross the mighty Himalayas by flight. By the so called Himalayan himp, American was able to give some assistance. Later the famous ledo road was constructed for sending supplies to china.
- The massive usa aid reached 500 million dollars in 1945.As the American secretary of war pointed out, the brilliaiint resistance to aggression which the Chinese have made and are making and their contribution to the common cause deserve their fullest support we can give.
- Joseph Stilwell a former American language officer in Peking was sent to chunking as ching’s chef of staff.
- During the Second World War china was generally on the defensive side .It had successfully stopped the further Japanese push in the interior part. The head –quarters was shifted to chuniing.As Japanese effort was diverted to south East Asia, china was relieved off temporarily from the fierce Japanese offensive attack.
- Throughout this period the relations between the KMT and CCP were not up to the mark. Mutual jealousy, suspicion and fear prevented them from forming a strong united front a gains Japan.
- In the Cairo conference of 1943,chiang kai sheik sat with president Roosevelt and the British premier Churchill and discussed the strategy of war in the far east. The Cairo declaration demanded for the first time the unconditional surrender of Japan, and complete restoration of territories lost to Japan since 1894.
After eight years of fighting china had emerged victorious, chi nag’s prestige rose high, for he had led the country through the darkest days of war to ultimate victory. China’s international position was also improved very much. It was china who had fought the longest fight from 1937 to 1945 against aggression and totalitarianism .China was given big power sates in the UNO.