American History –  Peace efforts made by the United States during II World War

  • US made possible efforts to avoid war and made a number of Neutrality Laws.
  • As war progressed England and France had setbacks, new neutrality laws were created.

 

  • The Atlantic Charter :-
  • First effort for peace before joining the war.
  • Drafted by Theodre Roosevelt and Churchill at Newfoundland ( reassembled the fourteen points issued by Wilson during WWI) .
  • It renounced that any territorial gains laid down the principles for a better future for the world.
  • It emphasized the that people had the right to choose the type of government ,ceasing of aggression and natural resources to be shared.
  • Burden and fear must be removed ,free-trade and internal co-operation issued and World peace to be established.

 

  • Conference of Casablanca :-

 

  • Conference hosted by Roosevelt and Churchill at Casablanca in Moroco on January 1943.
  • Two powers announced their decision to continue the war until the “Unconditional Surrender” of the enemy.
  • It is very significant as it resulted in the postponement of the Normandy Invasion until 1944.

 

 

  • Moscow Conference :-
  • Held on October 1948.
  • Peace effort made at the Secretary Hull, Moscow by the British Foreign Minister Antony Eden and the German Foreign Minister Vyacheslov Molotov.
  • The declaration was signed on “ Promised permanent co-operation and the establishment of general international organization based on the sovereign of the peace loving states.

 

  • Yalta Conference :-
  • Held on February 1945.
  • Both Britain and Moscow didn’t live up to the promise — i. Russia drove out Poland and established a communist government without consulting the allies. ii. Britain set up a conservative regime in Greece without the knowledge of the allies.
  • Roosevelt to make a sort of understanding created this ,where the top officials of both the countries attended along with the U.S.
  • They Decided to divide Germany into four parts, for the armies of G.B, U.S ,Russia and France to occupy.
  • Took oath that Liberated and Interim government would be set up.
  • Potsdam Conference :-
  • Held from July17 to August 2 ,1945.
  • Last peace conference.
  • Hosted and attended by Truman, Attlee and Stalin.
  • It was set up by a Council of foreign minister for the Peace Settlement.
  • It drafted treaties with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland.
  • It made efforts to bring Disarmament and Promote Democracy.
  • B and Russia were coordinated by a Central Council.

 

  • San-Francisco Conference :-
  • Held on 1945.
  • In October 1943, Foreign ministers of U.S, G.B, China and Russia met up to make and general international organization for peace and security.
  • In pursuance to this agreement fifty Anti-Axis nation’s representatives met at San-Francisco, California on April 1945.
  • Primary work was the maintenance of the peace agreement made at the Dumbarton Oaks in late 1944.
  • This conference made a new pact of making a World Organization instead of writing Pace treaties.
  • The Charter for the United Nations (UN) was accepted when proposed by Roosevelt , one year later the Security Council was made with 11 members, where the countries U.S , G.B , France , China were made permanent and enjoyed the right of the veto. Six members were elected or a peros of two years.