Early history : India and Burma have very close contact with each other since long. The west coast of the country known as Arakan is inhabited by Tibeteo-Burmese while on the east coast lived the Shans. Pagan was the main cultural centre of Burma in the ancient period.
The Mongol invasions : In the 13th century A.D. Mongols invaded Burma and they established control over larger part of Burma.
The Shan : After Mongols , Shans came to power in Burma, which soon fell to the Mughals.
Rise of Toungoo : It was the strongest state in Burma in the second half of 16th century. He managed to get assistance of the Portugese.
War with China : During the 19th century, Burma had to fight a war with China, in which the former was defeated and accepted the supremacy of the latter.