Indian National Movement
On 28 December 1885 Indian National Congress (INC) was founded in the premises of Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School at Bombay. It was presided over by W.C Banerjee and attended by 72 delegates. A.O Hume played an instrumental role in the foundation of INC with an aim to provide Safety Valve to the British Government. A.O Hume served as a first General Secretary of INC. Real Aim of Congress is too trained the Indian youth in political agitation and to organise or to create public opinion in the country. For this they use the method of annual session where they discuss the problem and passed the resolution. The first or early phase of Indian Nationalism is also termed as Moderate Phase (1885-1905). Moderate leaders were W.C Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and R.C Dutt
Congress Sessions during Swadeshi Movement:
- 1905 – Congress session in Banaras. Presided over by Gopal Krishan Gokhale.2. 1906 – Congress Session in Calcutta. Presided over by Dadabhai Naroji. 3. 1907 – Congress Session in Surat on the bank of the river Tapti. Presided over by Pherozeshah Mehta where due to the differences between Moderates and Extremist first split in Congress occurred.
Government of India Act 1919 or Montagu- Chelmsford Reform Act was passed to establish a responsible Government in India.
On 9th January 1915 Gandhi return to India from South Africa at the age of 46. In 1916 Gandhi founded Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad (Gujarat) to preach the idea of truth and non-violence.
Champaran Satyagraha – 1917
Kheda Satyagraha – 1917
Ahmadabad Mill Strike – 1918
Rowlatt Act Satyagraha February, 1919
Gandhi founded the Satyagraha Sabha in February, 1919. In this movement student, middle class, labour and capitalist participated and congress as an organisation was nowhere. This was the first mass movement of Gandhi.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre – 13 April, 1919. People were gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to protest against arrest on Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal on 13 April 1919. On 1st August 1920 Khilafat Committee launched a Non-Cooperation movement on triple issues- Punjab wrongs, Khilafat issue and Demand for Swaraj.
Civil Disobedience Movement was started with the Dandi March. From 12 March to 6 April , 1930 Gandhi along with his 78 followers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and broke the salt law by making salt on 6th April 1930.
Development of Education System in India during British Period
Education policy of the British: In pre-British days Hindus and Muslims were educated through Pathsala and Madrassa respectively. Britishers showed no interest in advancement of learning in the first stage of their rule in India. Some of the Britishers in personal endeavor and for political gain showed some interest in spreading education. Warren Hastings, Governor-General of Bengal showed keen interest in spreading oriental education in which effort Jonathan Duncan, Nathani Halhead, Sir William Jones, joined hands. Sir William Jones, the Justice Calcutta High Court, established Asiatic Society at Calcutta (1784 A.D.). Here they started research on oriental education and culture. At the time of Lord Wellesley Fort William College was established (1800 A.D.)
Endeavour of the Christian Missionaries: British colonial ruler did not show any interest in education. The Christian Missionaries were the first to come forward. The Baptist Missionary William Carey came to India in the year 1793 A.D. He along with his friends established Baptist Mission in Serampore (1800 A.D.). By their enthusiasm many primary schools came up in nearly places. They established a printing press and stilled printing booklets in Bengali. Carry translated the Ramayana in English (1800 A.D.) By his inspiration the Bible was translated in different Indian languages and Halhead’s Bengali Grammar’s new edition was published. By their zeal an English school was established in Serampore in 1818 A.D. That is now known as Serampore College.
Royal Indian Navy (RIN) Mutiny 1946
On February 18, 1946, a section of non-commissioned officers and sailors known as Ratings, serving in the Royal Indian Navy, mutinied against the British Officers.
The mutiny started as a strike by the ratings to protest against the hardships regarding pay, food and racial discrimination. In the same night, a Naval Central Strike committee was created by the Ratings. This committee was presided by Signalman M.S Khan and Vice president was Petty Officer Telegraphist Madan Singh. The populace of India was already fascinated by the heroic tales of the Indian National Army. So, the strikes and hartals spread from Bombay to Calcutta, Madras and even Karachi. The foolish British commander made some derogatory remarks on the nationality of these personnel and the result was that they took possession of some ships, mounted guns over there and started firing. The mutineers hoisted three flags tied together on the ships which they had captured -One of Congress, One of Muslim League, and the third Red Flag of the Communist Party of India. The mutiny was ended by intervention of Sardar Patel, who after a meeting with M. S. Khan made a statement of ending the strike. The similar statement was made by Jinnah in Calcutta. The mutineers surrendered but despite the assurances of Congress and Muslim League, many mutineers were arrested, subjected to court martial and dismissed from the services. The violence broke out in Mumbai and over 200 people lost lives in this disturbance. The mutiny made an impression on the British, that it would be better to leave the country. On February 19, the second day of this mutiny, Cabinet Mission was sent to India.