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Indonesia Freedom Movement – 2

History of Dutch Involvement in Indonesia As projects of heritage restoration necessarily involve history, let us turn now to a brief history of the Netherlands East Indies and Indonesia.  I will begin with the Dutch arrival, as the projects discussed below begin their engagement here.  When the Dutch arrived on Java in the late sixteenth […]

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Indonesia Freedom Movement – 1

 Introduction This project explores two projects to preserve the footprint of the colonizing Dutch in post-colonial Jakarta, Indonesia, questioning their implications for contemporary Indonesia.  The first, to restore and reinvigorate the historic (Dutch) center of Jakarta, preserves the urban morphology of the colonial period, which at first seems to contradict the post-colonial political situation.  The […]

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Philippines – Fall of Colonial Powers – 5

Quest for the Independence of Philippines Though the United States returned to power in the Philippines, the Filipinos did not want to be under colonial rule indefinitely. Time and again, Filipino leaders went to Washington to demand independence between 1919 – 1934. They constantly tried to make the United States aware that the Philippines would […]

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Philippines – Fall of Colonial Powers – 4

The American Rule and Japanese Invasion The Spanish rule in Philippines ended in 1898, and thus the nationalists were successful in driving away the Spanish. With that, in 1899, Aguinaldo formed the Philippine Republic – a new, independent nation, and became its first president. The new government declared its independence on 12th June, 1898 and […]

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Philippines – Fall of Colonial Powers – 3

The Philippine Revolution: (1896 – 1898/99) As the Philippines opened their markets, the Spanish began using the colony to extract raw materials and wreak havoc on the locals. However, development and awareness and the need for change also began seeking in the minds of the Filipinos. Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and others, demanded the […]

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Philippines – Fall of Colonial Powers – 2

History of the Philippines: (1521–1898) The Spanish Rule Much before the arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century, the Philippines already had a considerable population that was settled in numerous barangays (villages). Early Filipino history does not prove the existence of any great dynasties, however, barangays had proper leaders who were known as datus […]

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Philippines – Fall of Colonial Powers – 1

Introduction: South-East Asia South-East Asia is a sub region of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and Bay of Bengal, to the east […]

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Malaya Peninsula – 5

FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA Tegku Abdul Rehman proposed in 1971 for the establishment for the federation of Malaysia that will include Malay and Singapore three British protected territories of Sabha in North Borneo, Sarwak and Brunei. The Federation Singapore would retain its free port status and enjoy considerable autonomy. The Borneo States were given larger number […]

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Malaya Peninsula – 4

THE INVASION OF THE JAPANESE  The Japanese invaded Malaya in the year 1942 had a tremendous effect on the country. During this period the Japanese like the British favoured the Malayas and intentionally tried to aggravate the racial atmosphere between them and the Chinese. Besides increasing hostility between these two ethnic groups, resulted their sharpening […]

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Malaya Peninsula – 3

THE BRITISH POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE The British pursue their policy of divide and rule in Malaya. The British backed the Malaysia as the weakest element in the society. The British made a policy that only the British and the Malayas were eligible for the post of civil service. The British held the highest […]

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