®Vedic period worked with tribal chief in centre called Rajan due to his successful leadership in war.
®His post has become hereditary. He did not exercise unlimited power.
®He was elected by tribal assembly called Samiti
®Several tribal based assemblies were there who exercised deliberative , military and religious functions.
Sabha and samiti were most important of them.
®The king was assisted by functionaries in day-to-day administrations . The most important of them are purohita and senani .
®The two priest who played a main role in rig veda are vasishtha and vishvamitra.
®those chief received offerings from people as bali.
®Some officers enjoyed positions on their territories and they were called as vrajapathi.
®He led the heads of families called kulapas or the heads of fighting hordes called gramanins.
Eventually they became head of the village.
®the king did not maintain a standing army but mustered a military at times of war formed by tribes such as vrata , gana , grama , sardha.
TRIBE AND FAMILY
®Kanship was the basis of social culture.
®People gave their primary loyalty to the tribe called Jana.
®tribe was also called as vis is used 170 in rig veda
®Vis was divided into smaller groups called Grama meant for fighting.
®The term for family is kula and is rarely mentioned in rig veda.
®vedic phrase for family was Griha which frequently occurs in the text.
®The households were not separate and the family was a very large joint unit.
®The family was headed by the father as in roman culture.
®For many generations family lived in the same roof as it was a patriarchal society.
®Women could attend assemblies and offer sacrifices. They even composed 20 hymns in the text.
®Marriage were established through primitive practices such as yami.
®The practice of levirate and widow marriage were also seen in those texts.
®Marriageable age were between 16 to 17.
®Rig veda shows some consciousness of physical appearance.
®Aryans were fair in complexion and indigenous inhabitanta were dark.
®The colour were a identity mark at that period.
®Dasas and dasyus who were conquered by Aryans were treated as slaves and shudras.
®People were differentiated into 3 groups : warriors , priests and the people.
®The fourth group called shudras appeared at the rid vedic period.
®We hear that slaves were given as gifts to priests.
®Divisions based on occupation were started during this period.
RIG VEDIC GODS
®Aryans found their their religions around them.
®they found it difficult to explain the advents of rain , sun , moon , mountains etc.
®Rig veda contains hymns composed by different familes
®The most important divinity in rig veda is Indra who is called purandara.
®Indra is considered to be rain god.
®The second place goes to agni who is the god of fire. Because fire plays a vital role in their day today life like cooking and burning etc.
®The third is varuna the god of water.
®Soma is considered to be the god of plants.
®We also find female divinities like adidti and ushas.
®Agni and indra were give offerings like vegetables , barley , etc.
®But at that time practice were not followed by scarifices.
®people mainly asked for praja(children) , pashu(cattle), food , wealth , healt , etc.