The Chalukyas of Badami or Vatapi or estern Chalukyas laid foundation for the Chalukyas dynasty. The other branches of Chalukyas were eastern Chalukyas with the capital Vengi or Pishtapura, Chalukyas of Vemula Vada or later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani.
Chalukyas of Badami
The Chalukyas of Badami ruled over Dakshina (The territory between mount vindhya and river Krishna including Maharastra in the west and territory of Telugu speaking in the east in the 8th century). They ruled nearly 200 years. The first ruler of the dynasty was Jayasinhia. The most powerful ruler was Pulikesin-II. As a minor the administration was taken care by his uncle Mangalesa when he became adult in the civil war with his uncle he was killed and Pulikesin came out success. He also defeated The Kadambas and The Mauryas and forced the Gangas of Mysore to surrender. The Malwas, The Kurjaras accepted his Suzeranity. He attacked Kalinga and handed it to Vishnu Vardhana his brother, who later become independent and established the eastern Chalukyas. His great success was with Harsha at kanoj and stopped his advancement to south. He also defeated the Pallava king Mahendra varman-I and occupied his territories. The befriended The Cholas, The Pandyas, The Keralas to be helpful against the Pallavas. But Narashima Varman successor of Mahendra Varman repeatedly attacked and occupied the capital Badami. Though defeated and killed he was the greatest king of Chalukyas.
The younger son of pulikesin-II succeded and ascended the throne. He recaptured Badami proved the worthy son of worthy father. He defeated Pallava ruler Mahendra Varman-II and Parameshwara Varman-I and captured even their capital. But Parameshwara Varman recaptured his capital and all his territories after Vikramaditya-I the last famous king was Kirti Varman-II. Hence the governers ascerted their independent among them Rastrakuta, Dantidurga ascerted independent and also captured larger part of Chalukays and laid the foundation for empire Rastrakutas. Kirti varman tried to recapture but the successor of Dantidurga, Krishna-I snatched away all the remaining position and thus destroyed the empire of Chalukyas of Badami.
Pulikesin-II appointed his brother as governer of Pishtapura. Then he declared independence and established Eastern Chalukyas from 615-633 A.D. The first capital was Pishtapura then shifted to Venki and lastly to Rajamahendri. In the line of number of rulers Vishnu Vardhana-V was the greatest king. They were always at conflict with the Rastrakudas. The Rastrakudas with the help of Chola king Raja Raja-I defeated the Chalukyas lost their independence and became the feudatory chiefs of the Cholas this brought the disintegration of the eastern Chalukyas.
The Later Chalukyas of Kalyani
The Chalukyas of Kalyani were feudatories of Rastrakudas. During the period of Chalukyas of Kalyani. Thaila-II revolted and established the rule of later Chalukays of Kalyani. He was an able commander. He defeated the Chedis rulers of Kuntala and Orissa, Chalukyas of Gujarat, Paramaras of Malwa. He extended his kingdom and claimed to be the descendent of Chalukyas of Badami. Thaila – II was succeeded by Satyasraya the ablest ruler and his great achievement was attack and defeat of Chola king Raja Raja and compelled him to return to his country. The conflict between Chalukyas and Cholas continued for centuries. Vikramaditya – VI, the capable commander extended the territories from River Narmadha in the north to Mysore in the south. Thaila – III succeded in superssing the Chola king Kulathonga – II but failed to supress the revolt of the Kakathiyas of Telungana. In 1156 one of the feudatory chief’s of the Kalachuri dynasty captured the Chalukyas kingdom. After the death of Thaila – III his son Someshwara – IV got a temporary victory but he was driven out of the kingdom by the Yathava Bhillama. Hencee Someshwara – IV the last ruler of the Chalukyas past his life under his feudatory chief Kadamba Jayakesin – III of Goa.
Importance of Chalukyas
- Political Contribution: The Chalukyas had established an extensive empire in the Deccan. Cahlukyas of Badami ruled for nearly 200 years the Chalukyas of Kalyani also ruled south India for a quit long period. The dynasty had capable commander and rulers who fought with great rulers like Raja Raja from south and Harsha from the north. They assume title such as Parameshwara, Maha Rajadhi Raja, Dharma Bhataraka. They occupied the deccan and regions of the south India for a long time.
- Cultural Contribution: The Chalukya kingdom helped in the growth of south Indian culture. The Chalukya kingdom was economically prosperous. Hence big 4 cites and ports were constructed for internal and external trade. There was development of literature and fine arts.
- Religious Contribution: Chalukyas followed Hinduism performed many Yajnas. They also compiled many religious book many temple were constructed in honor of Shiva and Vishnu. They were religious tolerant and treated the jains of Maharastra with respect. The Jain Saint Raikirti was honoured in the court of Pulikesin – II. Vijayaditya and Vikramaditya donated many villages to Jain scholars. The Chinese traveller made mention of many Viharas and monasteries established by Chalukays. The parcies were also settled at Thana district of Bombay and religious tolerance was shown to them.
- 3. Fine Arts: Painting and Architecture flourished under the rule of Chalukays. Some of the painting at Ajanta cave contributed during the time of Chalukya. One of the Fresco painting exhibits the scene of welcoming the Ambassador of Persia at the court of Pulikesin – II. Temples were constructed. The main feature of the temples was, it was carved out of mountain many cave temple and the Chaitya halls were constructed. A cave temple for Vishnu was built at Badami by Mangalesh. A Shiva temple was constructed by Pulikesin – II in 634 A.D. The temple at Aihole was dedicated to Vishnu by Vikramaditya with the Aihole inscription. His wife constructed a temple for Shiva at Bijapur called Lokeshwara temple, now known as Virapaksya.