Facts of Ancient India -2

  1. Vindhya Shakti,

The real founder was the son of Vindhya Shakti, who was Pravarasena. He was the only Vakataka king titled as Samrat. His territory extended from Bundelkhand to Hyderabad in the south. He also performed the Ashvamedha.

  • Vakataka

This empire got divided, ruled by different dynasties headed by his sons. The grandson of Pravarasena was Rudrasena I (through his son Gautamiputra), with the seat of his kingdom at Nandhivardhana, 22 miles from Nagpur. Sarvasena, another son of Pravarasena ruled the western part of the capital at Vatsagulma, at Berar.

  • The Allahabad inscription

The Allahabad inscription/pillar enumerates the conquest of the Guptas but there is no mention of the Vakatakas. Hence it is clear that Vakatakas and Guptas were equally powerful.

  • Vastagulma branch

Harisena is the most notable king of this branch. He was powerful and his empire extended to part of Madhya Pradesh, eastern coast of Deccan, central India, Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and north Canara. It is difficult to trace how he maintained the vast area, but he was a powerful king.

Pulikesin-II, the Chalukyas

  • Hsuen Tsang on India

The Chinese traveller Hiuan Tsang visited India during the time of Harsha. He wrote ‘Si-Yu-Ki’ or Record of the western countries, it is known as the best source to know about the Socio- cultural condition of India at that time. His main aim was to study Buddhism and collect its religious texts. He stayed in India for 14 years. From Taxila, went to Kashmir, Matura, Kannuj, Sravarti, Ayadhya, Kapilavadu, Kusinagara and stayed at Nalanda for 5years. He left India in 644 A.D.

He wrote on the city life of India ,wrote about the type of trees and contributed with wood, brick and clay. He said Kannauj as a beautiful city.

  • It Sing (Yijing)

He studied in Nalanda University and stayed in India between 673-688 came as pilgrimage, He wrote the book titled ‘A record of the Buddhist religion as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago.


The Kadamba kingdom was founded by Mayurasarman. The capital was located at Vijayanthi/Banavasi, North Canara. The early Pallavas came in conflict with them. The Kadambas stayed in the forest and defeated the Pallavas. Maurasarman is said to have performed 18 Asvamedha sacrifices and also granted numerous villager to Brahmanas. He performed Asvamedha and Vajapeya sacrifices that fixed their position and enhanced their prestige and enormously increased the income of the priestly class. The Brahmanas therefore emerged as an important class at the expense of pesantry.

Kadambas of Banavasi subjugated by the Chalukya ruler Pulakesin II. The Kadambas also had the title Dharmaraj.


The Chalukyas of Badami/Vatapi, also known as western Chalukya/Chalukyas of the west; laid foundation for the Chalukyan dynasty. The other branches of Chalukyas were eastern Chalukyas with their capital at Vengi (Pistapura), Chalukyas of Vembulavada or later western Chalukyas of Kalyani.

  • The Chalukyas of Badami

The Chalukyas of Badami ruled over Dakshinapatha (the territories between Mount. Vindhya and river Krishna including Maharashtra in the west, territories of Telugu speaking areas in the east (8th century C.E) for nearly 800 years.

The first ruler of the dynasty was Jayasimha. The most powerful ruler was Pulakesin II.

  1. Titles of ancient Kings

They assumed titles such as Parameswara, Maharajadhiraja, Pharmabhattaraka. They occupied the Deccan and regions of south India for a long time.

  1. Aihole

The temple at Aihole was dedicated to Visnu by Vikramaditya II with the Aihole inscrition. His wife constructed a temple for Siva at Bijapur called Lokeswara temple, now known as Virapakshya. The Trilokeswara temple was also one of the best specimen of south Indian architecture.

  1. Rashtrakutas

Rashtrakutas came to power the destruction of Chalukyas of Badami. There is a view that the Rashtrakutas was the head of district administration under the Chalukyas. The important rulers of Rashtrakutas were Indra I, Dantidurga, Krishna, Govinda II, Dhruva, Govinda III, Shrava/Amoghavarsha, and Krishna III.