American War

British and French

  • During 1702-1713 France and Britain had a war which decided the fate of 13colonies in America
  • Britain acquired Acadia and Hudson Bay and had friendship with redindians
  • The colonist were important on the Austrian war of succession in 1740-1748 they captured the fort of Louisburg

French and Indian war

  1. The last three wars  were called as French –Indian war  which built the British supremacy
  2. At the battle of Quebec in 1758 the English under general Wolfe defeated the French under general Montcalm
  3. It trained the colonists to act against the British/alien rule
  4. They grew more independent

Paris peace treaty-1763

A. Canada and the region east of the Mississippi (except the island of New Orleans) were ceded to England
•B. To Spain her former ally, France turned over new Orleans and her vast claims west of the Mississippi river (Louisiana)
•C. England forced Spain to hand over Florida – French domine ended there

England tightens the laws: Mercantile treaty

England spent money for their own benefit not for the colonists also they tried to cover the war cost from the colony They made the colonists to not to sell the raw materials to outer world without their permission for better price and also they didn’t allow them to buy things in cheap from other countries rather than Britain. They were also restricted to selling manufactured goods

  • American business men were kept away from markets
  • Trade acts of 1699,1732,1750 forbid the manufacture of woolen
  • Also it was illegal to send certain goods to other ports rather than Britain

Growing anger

The colonists started to sell their goods against the laws and regulations also they bought goods from other countries, this created conflict between the Americans and English which led to the war of 1765-1775

1. Beginning of an aggressive colonial policy
•the king George III in 1760 marked the beginning of strong policy towards the colonies
•they tried to increase government revenues and to tighten the commercial ties that bound the empire together

2.The royal proclamation of 1763
•According to this proclamation no one was allowed to settlement west of the Alleghany mountains angered the people of the middle and southern colonies who through hunting and trading ventures had discovered the rich possibilities of that region
•The Americans refused to respect the law
•The British government placed a standing army of 10,000 men in the colonies to enforce the proclamation line and to defend resulting from this decision and also to meet the costs of the French and Indian war
•The British government tried to collect new ventures from among the colonies

3.Direct taxation 1765
 •This law required revenue stamps of varying amount, to be affixed to all legal documents, newspapers, bonds , property deeds , business contracts and other commercial agreements playing cards etc.which made protests on large

Causes and results

Quarterins Act

This law required colonies to furnish barracks and certain foods for the troops stationed there to defend them.New York was especially hard hit by the new law because a large no.of troops was assigned there

Loyalty of the great majority

  • The large majority of Americans were still deeply loyal to the government in London
  • These people gave the English government the impression that there would be little resistance to its new polices
  • Even after the revolution broke out, they remained loyal to England and were called Tories/Traitors

 The “Little People”, leaders of resistance

  • Most of the people of this group, who resist the England were hurt by the trade laws, the proclamation line the stamp act and the quartering act.
  • The leaders of the little people – mechanics, small shop keepers, and small farmers — disagreed with those who counselled caution. They wanted action
  • Leaders – Samuel Adams in Massachusetts, Patrick Henry in Virginia, Samuel Adams of Boston
  • Samuel Adams and Patrick henry became leaders of the “independents” and wished 13 thirteen colonies to become independent of England
  • They aroused public feeling against the British

Agitation against the stamp act

  • Virginia and Massachusetts inspired by the oratory of the “Independents”
  • A set of resolutions against the stamp act was passed by a single vote in the house of Burgesses, was circulated throughout the colonies
  • “No taxation without representation” become a slogan in Massachusetts
  • The declaration of rights and grievances was drawn up, and a petition professing loyalty was sent to the king and parliament
  • The burned heaps of stamps
  • Stamp collectors were handled roughly
  • Workman formed groups calling themselves “Sons of Liberty”
  • 9 colonies sent delegates to the so-called stamp act congress in 1765 to register their protest against the stamp act

 Repeal of the stamp act and declaratory act:

  • Leading members of the parliament of England- Edmund Bruke, William Pitt, and others – rose to the defense of the Americans
  • British merchants complained that their colonial trade was being hurt
  • The stamp act was repealed in the spring of 1766

 The Townshend Acts:

  • Townshend who was the chancellor of the king George had passes a series of laws, which laid duties on lead, glass, paper, paint, and tea imported by the colonies
  • The revenue obtained from these duties was to be used to pay salaries to colonial governors, judges, and British troops that were there to protect the colonists

The Boston Massacre

  • In 1770 lord north who was the prime minister had parliament repeal all the Townshend duties except that on tea in America, the so called “Boston massacre” took place
  • In March 1770, a brawl outside the custom house began in which soldiers fired on a crowd killing five and wounding several citizens
  • The officers responsible for it were fired by the American jury after a trail

It splendid chance for revolutionary agitators like Richard Samuel and Thomas Jefferson

First continental congress-1774

  • The congress told the colonists to organize local militia and start training gradually they decided  to meet  in1775.the second congress was to set the first union of all colonies
  • The British decided to suppress the rebels instead of addressing their grievance

The armed resistance in Lexington

  • In April 1775 a group of British soldiers under the command of Gen. Gage were stopped in their way by a group of patriotic farmers in Lexington and were not allowed to pass through.
  • The rebels were asked to disperse but they disobeyed.
  • So the British soldiers shot the rebels killing 11 of them.
  • The killings of the farmers infuriated the colonists and they organized themselves for an armed resistance
  • The moderates believed on writing petition and things but the radicals were against it and protested through the way of violation

2nd continental congress

  • Philadelphia 1775 September 5th
  • News came that there was a major battle held at breeds hill (also called Bunker Hill) which were under the control of patriots and that the patriots fought fiercely.
  • George Washington became the commander in chief
  • It created 2 committee composed of Jefferson,Franklin,John adams,Roger
  •  Sherman, and Robert to prepare the declaration within few days the war also declared
  • The sentiments on behalf of independence from the British were addressed in a pamphlet named common sense by Thomas Payne which was written in Jan 1776

The declaration of independence – 1776

  • The declaration of independence was formally adopted on July 4th 1776
  • It contained the reasons for the separation of the colonies from great Britain and had three parts
  • The first part contains the reasons for revolution – consists of self-evident truths
  • The second part has a list of colonial grievances aimed at the king of England
  • The third part transforms the colonies into the United States of America.

               The effects of the declaration of independence

  • The followers of the British and the king were considered traitors
  • Their property was seized and many of them were banished to Canada
  • Most of the new states adopted a constitution
  • In New York and New England governors began to get elected by popular vote. In other states the power of the governors reduced
  • Religious qualifications limited suffrage in a number of states

The war for independence

  • When the British left Boston the whole new England came under the control of the Americans
  • But the British recaptured New York
  • The Americans had to spent the cold and brutal winter in ‘valley forge’ while the British were comfortable in their havens in New York
  • American naval ships attacked and plundered the British ships
  • The final battle was held in the city of Yorktown
  • Gen Cornwallis was trapped in the city from every side and surrendered his whole army

The causes for the failure of the British

  • George Washington showed great skill as the commander of the American army
  • The men fighting for the British army had no coordination between them
  • The British had a geographical disadvantage as the American sharpshooters used the formations of the land for their favor
  • Supply routes of the British army were effectively blocked by Americans
  • The Americans were largely benefitted by the French aid