The Middle East has a unique geographical position. It is an area situated at the junction of Asia, Europe and Africa and has easy approach in these three continents. The term of Middle East is invented by the western to describe the geographical region that lies between Asia and Africa. There are different theories about the Origin of the Name of Middle East. It has been assumed that the “Middle East” The name of this region is also the Near East, Far East introduced by British in which especially included the areas of Ottoman Empire and south East Europe and North Africa. The “Near East” and Middle East create a question .Both names or consist of two words. The first which denotes proximity and other shows the direction.
1. This Area also called the Fertile Crescent. The description Middle East has some confusion Before the world war first, Near East was used for Balkans and Ottoman Empire, while Middle East for the Persian and central Asia.
2 But with the disappearance of Ottoman Empire, the term of Near East fell out and the Middle East became common for reorganizing the Islamic World. According to the most widely accepted divinations, the region includes Bahrain, cypress Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordon, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, U-A-E (United Arab Emirate) Yemen, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco and the much part of the Sudan is considered Middle East. Including with the countries of North African countries on addition has been occurred in 1996 with name of Greater Middle East.
Middle East is considered the house of early civilization, the Motherland of humanity and the center of early agriculture. The world earliest civilization and ancient Egypt originated in this area of Fertile Crescent and in the Nile valley. The other letters and oration of Asia Minor, Levant, Persian and Macedonian Civilization of Iran, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula were situated there. The Near East was first largely unified no Assyrian Empire, then Achaemined Empire and after it the Macedonian empire and in Persian Empire, Sassanid empire. The Arab or Islamic conquest started in 7 Th century AD and unified the entire Middle East. The Mongols, the Turkish Sulkies, Ottoman and Savaii also dominated this area.
Alexander the Great of Macedonia crossed into Asia Minor and in nice years conquered the entire Middle East (Persian Empire). After his death it was divided into two of his Syria, and the Ptolemaic kingdom cantered. “It is also described many historians that the Alexander was married with the daughter of Dara who was emperor of Persia at that time. The name of the bridle was Rukhsona and a story of her is famous with Hakeem who considered the lover of Rukhsona. The dominion of this era called holistic kingdom due to their Greek origin established the Greek culture throughout the Middle East, Alexandria, Egypt become the center of Greek learning.
During the Roman Era Christianity was found in Jerusalem, Asia Minor and Alexandria. Emperor Constantine the great made the Christianity the official religion of his new Eastern capital. The factions started between Jews and Christians in this area even the Jerusalem was destroyed but the Judaism banished from there.
The Muslim or Islamic religion was founded in Arabia early in the 7th century by Mohammad S.A.W. soon the Muslims quickly was to his cause that the Islam should be spread in all over the world. Muslims Invaded in Persian and Byzantium Empires and by hundred years all the Middle East and Asia Minor was conquered. Arabic become the common language. During the period of pious caliphate the capital was Medina, during the Omayyad’s. Damascus and under the Abbasside rules the Baghdad and then Al-samara. During the Abbasside the Arab control defined and the Muslim world influenced by the Persian whom a brilliant Islamic culture developed. But internal conflict brought division in Mix faith. During this period, the Turks known as Seljuk’s were converted to Islam and become the rulers of all central Middle East 11th century and the areas of Byzantine empire was also include under their rule.
The war between the Muslims and Christian on the Holy land of Jerusalem called the crusades. There are many political, social, religious and economic reasons of these wars. Pope innocent III want to control over the Eastern Church also so, the suffered the Christians to these wars and million people were killed in these wars. This was the period in which Muslims dynasties were going to downfall like Abbaside, Fatimid, Saljukes and the Omayyad. Therefore war was occurred in 1097 and the Bait-ul-Muqqadas underwent the Christian on 15 June 1099. The interference of this type continued for next 200 years. Within the 5o years, the Muslim had begun wining back the territory. The Muslim had regain the Middle East under the leader Saladin. In 1258, the Mongols of Gengiz khan invaded there and destroyed the learning center Baghdad but failed to defeat the Mamluke. Mongol authority soon wounded. The Ottoman absorbed the Seljukes and began conquering the remainder of the Byzantine Empire. Beginning in1310, the Tatar commander Tamerlane reconquered much of Middle East in a long campaign but could not survive it, with the death of Tamerlane in 1405. The Ottoman took Constantinople in 1453, ended the Byzantine Empire.
When the Ottoman was establishing their dimension which extended through Balkons, Memluke. .Egypt was the center of Middle East trade and of Islamic culture. The crusaders fighting and due to the devas did of Mongols, Much area of Fertile Crescent converted in desert. Because the population is migrated from that place and new settlement was also disturbed by the Nomadic people. In that period many of Jews returned to Palestine especially from the Spain after their expelled. The Portuguese opened the trade root around North Africa and towards Indies the economy of Memaluke Empire was collapse during that period. The Ottomans entered in Syria in 1516 and in a few months conquered the Levant and Egypt. With 25 years, they had gained control of Mesopotamia, much of the Red sea, and Persian Gulf coastline .Constantinople become the center of trade of the world.
Growth of European
After the period of expansion, Ottoman sultans gradually lost control of their vast territories. Many local rulers become autonomous and most of the empire divided in economy. European were permitted to trade with eastern countries. France and Britain used the way to Suez. In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte armies seized Egypt for France but the French were expelled in three years. In this period British made the arrangements for trade along the Arabian coast. The French constructed the Suez Canal, 1859-69, but the British gained the financial control and by the mid of 1880, had established Military control over Egypt. France gained influence with the Ottoman sultan’s and was given special place in Levant. Russia controlled some northern part of Iran and Britain discovered oil in south of Persia in 1908.
Germany, seeking to become a colonial power, had gained a favoured position with the Ottomans by start of world war. At the outbreak of first world war in 1914, Ottoman Turkey formed an alliance with Germany, Turkish force saw in action against the Britain and Russia with British support, the Arabian formed several independent domains with the rule of “Laurence of Arabia” in this same is very important. After the victory of western front, Syria (Including modern Jordan) became a league of Nation Mandate of France’s Palestine and Mesopotamia mandates of Britain. Egypt re-established its monarchy, but British troops remained. Turkey becomes a republic.
The Modern Middle East
Most of the Mandate continued until the World War II. Although the people of these countries have started the independent movement. The major European countries were on concerned to establish a homeland for Jews. In response to Zionism, the movement devoted to this cause, Britain declared a Balfaur declaration in 1917, favouring establishment of Jewish homeland in Palestine. But Arabian perused it consideration of a British plan of 1939 for a Palestine nation to be shared by Arabs and Jews was interrupted by World War II. In 1945, the Arab countries founded the Arab league. When the nation of Israel was established in the portions of Palestine in 1948, League members want to war. After the World War II, Britain gradually started to with draw from there and Russia tried to gain the controlled there. Middle East became the most attractive place due to the petroleum and warm trade routes the oil industries were largely owned by western companies.