New State of Turkey under Mustafa Kamal

Introduction

Mustafa Kemal, Brilliant soldier a revolutionary statesman a man who joined his faith with the destiny of his nation. In 1915 Met Gallipoli. He handed the British one of the most devastating defeats in this history. 1918 stand from World War One as the early undefeated Ottoman commander four years later He led his people in their struggles against the Invading Greek forces and won back their independence. In 1923 on the ruins of the default Ottoman Empire he founded and become the first president of the Republic of Turkey.

Six months later, He become the first leader to attack and defeat Islamic theocracy with the seeds of democracy he planned the nation, he cultivated endured tribulations birth from inside and outside for is period Stalin observed him a fascist Hitler and Mussolini said he was a communist others call him a dictator, his people called him AtaTurk (the father of Turkey) Mustafa Kamal AtaTurk (May/ 19/1881-november/10/1938)

Early life

Mustafa Kamal AtaTurk was born in May 1881 in Salonika and now called as Thessaloniki in Greeks but was then part of the Ottoman Empire. His actual birthdate is unknown, but He chose himself. His father was a timber dealer and an also former customs lieutenant who died when Mustafa was seven years old, his mother came from long established rural family. He grew up in fairly modest circumstances and had 5 siblings 4 brother and only one sister survived childhood. After death of the father, the family goes to the country side to live one of Mustafa’s uncles, and Mustafa did not attend school continuously until He move back to Salonika at the age of nearly 10. He wasn’t there for long; thought, dropping out at the age of 12.but he applied middle school, was accepted, and graduated in 1985 as one of the top student. So his math’s teacher gives the name Kemal. That means perfect in Arabic.

After degree he moved the contaminable, the capital of Istanbul, and he became an Officer at the military academy. He remained until 1902.but was arrested shortly after leaving by governments intelligence and spend several month in prison for opposition to the government. Mustafa joined the opposition party while at the academy, which supports western style reform movement and wanted greater self-determination and autonomy in the empire, the obsolete power of the sultan. The academy director intervened And Mustafa released and soon enough he was a captain employed by the War office.

 In Damascus, he founded a secret organization called, “fatherland and freedom “ .afterward himself become a member of the committee for union and progress, otherwise known as the young Turk’s, a large opposition organization. In 1908 as an army chief of staff he supported the young Turks revolution which deposed the sultan and restored a constitutional government.

1910 Mustafa Kemal visited Western Europe for the first time. Mustafa Kemal famous quote, “There are different cultures, but only one civilization, the European one. “Comes from the visit. In 1911 and 1912 he fought as a major in the Italian -Turkish war. This war showed cracks in the foundation of the Empire and in 1912 Greek, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria formed an alliance to exploit those crack and attacked the empire in October. This was the first Balkan war, and Mustafa a fought in Gallipoli and bilayer. During World War 1

After the war he worked as military attaché and in 1914 he became lieutenant colonial in the Ottoman embassy in Sofia When 1st World War Brock out, Mustafa Kemal lived in Bulgaria the Ottoman empire fought with Germany empire during World War One,  and in January 1915, the 19th Turkish army was assigned to Mustafa Kemal. Kemal pasha transferred to Gallipoli and his fantastic exploits against the allies while defending at Gallipoli brought him worldwide fame and attention, as well as military glory. He is forces beat back the British and French forces time and again, and the Gallipoli campaign ended in defeat for the allies, Mustafa Kemal was praised throughout the Empire, even with the hundreds of thousands of Ottoman lives lost. After Gallipoli, he was post in Edirne and Diyarbakir. Promoted to major general in April 1916 he fought to recapture mush and battles.

From the Russian, and after little battles in Damascus and Aleppo, he returned to Constantinople in early 1918, he visit the Ottoman crown prince validating ,latter sultan Mehmet five, also meeting German Kaiser William 2,german quartermaster general Erich Ludendorff  and field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg as they planed spring offensive. That’s pretty heavy company. In June 1918, Mehmet become sultan of the Empire, The last one as it turned out. Mustafa Was made commander of the 7th army with the task of defending Syria against the British advance. This would prove to be an impossible task, and Mustafa Kemal could only organize a coordinate retreat until the treaty of mudra’s on October 31 ended the campaign. After the World War

After the war Mustafa return to the Constantinople. The empire collapsed after the war and the peace treaty of severs in 1920 actually partitioned the empire among the victory and the indigenous people. The treaty was never ratified, though, because the Turkish war of independence brought everyone back to the negotiating table.

 Mustafa Kemal was both the political and military during the war defending his country against foreign incursion and commenting his position as the in change, even when turmoil in the country resulted in massacres of both Armenian and Greek. After 4 years of war the modem Republic of Turkey was founded with Mustafa Kemal as its first president, a post he would hold for 15years, being honoured with the surname AtaTurk in 1934.  He was, and is, the symbolic figure of Turkish national consciences. I lived in Istanbul. War of independence

Mustafa Kemal was assigned as the leader of the ninth army troops inspectorate to recognize what remains of the Ottoman military units and to improve internal security on 30th April 1919.

His first goal was the establishment of on organized national movement against the occupying forces. In June 1919 he issued the Amasya circular; proclaim the independence of the country was in danger. He quite from the Ottoman army on 8th July and the Ottoman government issued a warrant for his arrest later. He was condemned to death

The last election to the Ottoman parliament held in December 1919 gave a sweeping more than off to candidates of the “association for defence of rights for Anatolia and Rumelia headed by Mustafa Kemal who himself remain in Ankara

The fourth team of the parliament opened in Constantinople on 12January 1920.it was dissolved by British forces on 18th March 1920.mustafa Kemal called for a national elections to establish a new Turkey parliament seated in Ankara the “Grand National Assembly “(GNA) On August 10th 1920, the Ottoman grand vizier demit fetid pasha signed the treaty of severs, finalizing for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.

He persuaded the Grand National assembly (GNA) to gather a national army. The GNA army forced the caliphate army propped up by the allied occupation forces and had the immediate task of fighting the Armenian force in the eastern front and the Greek force advancing eastward from Smyrna that they had occupied in May 1919,on the western front

In January 1920, Mustafa Kemal advanced his troops into Marash were the battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian legion. The battle resulted in a Turkish victory

After a series of warfare during the Greco-Turkish War, the Greek army advanced as far as the Sakarya River, just eighty kilometer west of the GNA .battle of Sakarya was fought from 23August to 13th September 1921 and ended with the defeat of the Greeks.

In August 1922, Kemal launch an all-out attack on the Greek lines in the battle of Dumlupinar and Turkey Force regained control of Smyrna on 9th September 1922.

 Republic of Turkey

The conference of Lausanne began on 21st November 1922 although the conference halted on 4th February it continued after 23 April mainly on the economy issues. On 24th July 1923, the treaty of Lausanne was signed by the power with the GNA, thus recognizing the letter as the government of Turkey.

On 29 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey was announced. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey effort to modernize the country started. The new government analysis the instructions and constitution of western state such as France, Sweden, Italy, and Switzerland and adapted them to the need and characteristic of the Turkey nation

He. Capitalized on his reputation as a capable military leader and spent the following years, up until his death in 1938. Kemal establishing political, economic and social reform. He transformed the Turkish society from perceiving itself as a Muslim part of a vast empire into a modern, democratic, and secular nation-state. Father of modern Turkey

He led wide ranging reform in social, culture, and economic aspect establishment the New Republics backbone of Legislative, judicial, and economic structures

Mustafa Kemal created a banner to mark the Changes between the old Ottoman and the new Republic rule. Each changes were symbolized as an arrow in this banner. His ideology of the Republic of Turkey is referred to as the “six Arrows” or Kemalist ideology. Kemalist ideology is based on Mustafa Kemal’s conception of realism and pragmatic Six arrows of Kemalisam

i. Republicanism (rule of law) ii. Statism (regulated Economy) iii. Reformation (social reform) iv. Populism (civic virtue) v. Nationalism (national unity) vi. Secularism (state and religion)

These arrows served as the ideological core of the new Turkish Republic a large segment of the society embraced those ideas but equally large portion resisted them one.

One group of people that was alienated in the formation of the new government were the Kurds although today the situation has improved significantly for the Kruk’s And many of them are well integrated into the political economic and social life of Turkey there is an uneasy friction between the central government and ethnic groups beyond the Kurdish issues there is an even deeper over religion.

In the 1920s in an effort to break from the Ottoman past and consolidate the Republic of Turkish AtaTurk (Mustafa Kemal) moved to disassociate the newly independent country.

from Islam in first 1924 he Abolished The Ottoman caliphate which had served as the political and religious focal point in Sunni Muslim world it was enormous step towards secularization but it wasn’t enough Turkey had to change its cultural identity and   that design AtaTurk instituted the use of the Gregorian calendar European numerals and the Latin alphabet

The Turkey constitution of 1924 set a Loos separation of powers between the legislative and the executive organs of the state, whereas the separation of these two within the judiciary system was a strict one. Mustafa Kemal. As its first president. The only political party of the GNA was the “people party “, founded by Mustafa Kemal on 9th September 1923 .Abolition of the caliphate. On 3rd March 1924 the caliphate was officially abolished and it’s powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA.

 Reformation

In the summer time of 1924, Mustafa Kemal invited American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkey education, he wanted to institute compulsory primary education for both girls and boys. Unification of education was put into force on 3march 1924 by the law on unification of education. With the new law, education become inclusive organized on a model of the civil community.

In this new design all schools submitted their curriculum to the “Ministry of national education “The unification of education under one curriculum ended “clerics or clergy of the Ottoman empire“. But was not the end of religious school in Turkey. They were moved to higher education until later government restored them to their former in secondary after Mustafa Kemal’s death.

Beginning in the fall of 1925, Mustafa Kemal encouraged the Turkish to wear modern European attire. Mustafa Kemal pasha was determined to force to the abandonment of the Sartorial Tradition of the Middle East and finalized a series of dress reform, which were originally started by Mahmud 2.

The law of 1925 introduced the use of western style hats instead of the fez. Mustafa Kemal first made the hat compulsory for civil servant. In the year following 1926, Mustafa Kemal introduced a radical departure from previous reformation established by the Ottoman Empire. For the first in history Islamic law was separated from secular law, and restricted to matters of religion. The 1st part was the education of girls and was established with the unification of education On 4th October 1926, the new Turkish civil code passed. It was modeled after the Swiss civil code so many students benefited

On 5December 1934, Turkey moved to grand full political to women, before several other European nations. The equal right of women in marriage had already been established in the earlier Turkey civil code the 1935 election yielded 18 women MPs out of a total of 395

at the same time the office the Shia Islam which had presided over the religious affairs was abolished the same faith awaited Sufi orders religious school and charities as well as clothing items such as the fez eventually in 1928 Islam was removed from the constitution as the  religion of the state Hewer of the state however the disintegration of the Ottoman empire had left Turkey with only the Marmara heartland and Anatolian island those as AtaTurk overhauled the country and formed a fiercely secular society capital generated in the see of the Marmara was largely invested in Anatolians infrastructure and education Conclusion Mustafa Kemal AtaTurk died of cirrhosis of the liver November 10th, 1938. He was initially laid to rest in the Ethnography museum in Ankara, the new capital of Turkey, but 1953 was move to a huge mausoleum that overlooks the city. He was admired worldwide by virtually every politician of his era, and in 1981, UNESCO declared the, “year of AtaTurk “in honors of his 100th birthday. Here’s a bizarre but cool piece of trivia -one of AtaTurk’s adopted daughter was the world’s first female fighter pilot. Mustafa Kemal the father of all Turks and the driving forces behind the creation of modern Turkey