CAUSES OF SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
America’s imperialism policy was to establish their supremacy in the Caribbean Sea. This Led to the Spanish American war. Though the Spanish colonies became independent in South America. Since 1805.spanish were able to retain their ownership at Cuba and Puerto Rico (islands of Caribbean Sea).
Cuban revolt against Spanish rule
Those South American republican states people were enjoying rights of political liberty and progress Spain did not try to improve the standard of political life. But they were granted democratic facilities. In Cuba the people did not like the rule of the Spanish emperor so they revolted against him (1868-1878) for a better democratic life however Spanish rule or suppressed their rebellion again in 1895 rebellion and broke out.
Survival of the fittest. Europeans viewed themselves as superior. It encouraged United States of America to intervene into Cuba issue. That roused the public opinion against Spain in United States of America to bring peace in Cuba. Spain committed inhuman atrocities in Cuba. It resulted for the defense of liberal and humanitarian idealism. It gained a popular sentiment for Unites States of America against Spain.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. Yellow Journalism played a major role in Spanish American war
Military preparedness is of primary importance to a state. USA was strengthening its military that made the attack of Spain an easy task.
The Industrial Revolution brought radical socioeconomic changes. There was huge demand for resources and need for new markets. America was emerging as the strongest industrial force in the world.
America aim was to be a world power. Need for new markets to sell goods, more land to get raw materials. To keep up with European Powers with goals of leadership.
The Americans war against Spain
1) Liberating Cuba from Spain which will lead United States of America to have their naval base in the Caribbean Sea.
2) The Philippine islands were owned by Spain will serve as a foot hold of United States of America in the Far East.
Theodore Roosevelt assistant secretary of navy during McKinley’s administration. They were very serious about the American expedition
During the time of President McKinley in February 1898. America sent their battle ship “Maine” Which was blown by some unknown sources (till now they were not able to find out the source). It created a slogan “remember the Maine”. The American people held the Spanish authorities.
They were responsible for blowing “Maine” in and unknown way. The president McKinley did not wanted wage a war. He was always favoring peace. But he wanted to be re-elected as president, so he brought an agreement between Spanish and the rebels of Cuba.
But that agreement with Spain created a problem,
a) The Americans always favored to wage a war against Spain.
b) Due to this Americans would not able to get overseas naval bases.
Therefore in April 1898, President McKinley settled an agreement war party of United States of America he sent a message to American congress to use the force and the fighting in Cuba. This war was to settle the rebellion in Cuba America declared war against Spain in 1898.
The United states of America Acquisition of Islands in the Spanish war:
1) Acquisition of Philippines: (Dec 1898)
In the process of liberating Cuba from Spain, first America led operation in the Far East in May 1898. It resulted in destruction of Spanish battleship in manila bay. They chased the Spanish power out of manila (capital of Philippines).
But the America did not conquer the whole region. By the “Treaty of Paris” in December 1898 the islands of Spain acquired by America on the payment of $20 million corers on 10th December 1898.
2) Acquisition of Puerto Rico: (Aug 1898)
The islands of West Indies were acquired by American troops after defeating the Spanish in July 1898.
RESULTS OF SPANISH AMERICAN WAR:
The Spanish American war came to an end after the “Treaty of Paris” in December 1898.
According to this,
1) Spain relinquished (gave up) the island of Cuba
2) Acquisition of Philippines, Puerto Rico, and small islands of Guam (Pacific Ocean) by America.
3) The Philippine islands were purchased by America from Spain. It helped the America to establish their power in Far eastern trade.
The Spanish American war helped America to acquire the islands and able to have their base in those islands. It helped them in trade with far eastern countries. The American territories extended in the Pacific Ocean in future it gave an advantage to penetrate economically and politically in the far eastern countries.
It made the United States of America to give up the “policy of Isolationism”. Which let the America to take part actively in world politics. As a result United States of America become powerful individual politics. The United States of America also introduced open door policy with china and Far eastern countries in 1900’s.