In Germany romantic idealism was popular. In England and France before it was enlightenment, romantic idealism was against enlightenment. Rousseau, the French philosopher was the founder of Romantic idealism. Its idea was to give freedom to individuals, innocence of primitive man. Rousseau believed that tyranny and wickedness were associated with advanced in civilizations. Rousseau’s slogan was ‘back to nature’. It was the foundation of the new romanticism or romantic idealism. Hence, it was glorification of primitive state of nature. Enlightenment and Romanticism believed in freedom. Reason was the aspect of enlightenment. Importance to nature was the aspect of Romanticism.


       Kent contributed to the concept of liberty to writing history. He was the contemporary of Gibbon, Voltaire and Rousseau. He admired Rousseau and Montesquieu, but did not follow them. He stood of his own and wrote his great work, “The Critique of Pure Reason”.


   Hegel was one of the most influential philosophers of romantic idealistic movement.


   J.S.Mill was the disciple of Bentham. He was the greatest utilitarian philosopher. He explained that knowledge comes neither from nor from inborn ideas neither from mystic institutions, but from experience. He did not favor socialism as that would destroy the personal liberty. In his view, development can be understood only historically, for it proceeds to different stages of cultural growth.