Karl Marx, founder of scientific socialism, industrial revolution and democratic movements stimulated the study of social and economic history. In 1848, Engels and Marx issued the communist manifesto. In 1867, he published his first volume of his great work of political economy, ‘Das Kapital’. In this work, he explained the doctrines of socialism. The fundamental rights are,
- ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY:
According to Karl Marx, all the political, social and intellectual movements have been determined by the economic environment.
- DIALETICAL MATERIALISM:
Every economic system of production and exchange grows to the point of maximum efficiency, and then develops weakness, which causes a rapid decay. Now the opposite system develops a gradually replaces the old by absorbing its most valuable elements. Hence, this change over exists until the perfect goal of communism is attained.
- CLASS STRUGGLE:
All history is made up of class struggles. In ancient times, the struggle was between masters and slaves. In medieval period, the struggle was between it was with Lords and Serfs. In modern period, it was between capitalist and proletariat.
- DOCTRINE OF SURPLUS VALUE:
All wealth is created by workers. The capital itself is created by labors. The values of commodities are determined by the labor needed to produce them. But the worker does not receive the full value but receives the wage. There is a lot of difference in the value that he produces; the surplus value goes to the capitalist.
- THEORY OF SOCIALIST EVOLUTION:
Exploitation leads to class struggle between capitalist and workers. Ultimately capitalism will be destroyed and socialism established. Socialism has three characters-
- Dictatorship of Prolitariat
- Payment in accordance with they perform
- Ownership and operation by the state by means of production, distribution and exchange.
Hence, socialism will be in transition.
Communism means a classless society in which no one lives by owning. All lives by working and all get according to their needs. The state will disappear and voluntary organization operates for social necessities.
According to Marx, economic condition determines the historical process. St.Agustine of divine power, Buckle of climate, Montesquieu of biology, Hegel of reason and Marx in terms of matter.
Economic forces determine the making of history. Satisfaction with material needs is the principle factor of human history, but they do not decide everything in historical process. There are other factors like social, cultural and psychological.