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Research Methodology – Analyzing the Data – Authenticity of Data: Objectivity and Subjectivity:

Objectivity and Subjectivity                 Objectivity is the capital importance for the growth of healthy historical studies. Herodotus and Greeks freed history from mythology. Voltaire stressed upon the importance of reason. Ranke stressed the importance of objectivity in historical writing. These developments contributed objectivity in historical writing. This contributed to the emergence of history as an independent […]

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Research Methodology – Collection of Data: Heuristics

The technique of data collection is called as ‘Heuristics’. It is derived from the Greek word ‘Heuriskein’ which means ‘to find’. It is for the skillfulness in the collection of evidences, memory for details and self discipline in recording notes. It involves three aspects – (i) identification of places where sources are found. (ii) Identification […]

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Research Methodology – Hypothesis

Hypothesis means an idea that is formulated as a starting point for discussion. A working hypothesis is intended to bring out the importance of the scope of study, indicate the related studies so far undertaken, lost out the data to be collected, explain the methods of approach and give glimpse in the conclusions that are […]

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Research Methodology – Requirements of a Researcher

A researcher has to fulfill certain qualifications for understanding a research. Intellectual curiosity. Personal ambition to gain recognition. To serve a social need. For a job.     A researcher should be given freedom to define his or her own research problem. In this process the supervisor can guide and shape the beginners and not to […]

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Research Methodology – Selection of Topic for Research

 Historical research aims at making a new contribution to discover the historical truths in the events and developments. This process of research involves selection of proper topics, identify sources, collect data, analyze the data and finally present it to make the contribution. Selecting Topic or Selection of Problem:               No enquiry can be done until […]

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Bibliography

The Bibliography or List of References appears after the Body of the Document.  It is a complete listing of all cited resources used to create your document.  Even though Journal Model authors may have individual Reference sections for each article, this complete Reference list of all citations must appear at the end of the entire manuscript. […]

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Footnotes

What Are Footnotes? Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. […]

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Thesis and dissertations presentation

ORDER A.  The Preliminaries Title page Abstract Preface and/or acknowledgements Table of contents List of illustrations, tables, etc. B.  The Text Main body of the work Footnotes For many theses the text may look as follows: Introduction Literature review Materials and methods Results Discussion Conclusion C.  The Reference Material Bibliography Appendices Index FORMAT and DESCRIPTION […]

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Historical Writing of the West – Montesquieu

Montesquieu: Intellectual revolution of the west or in Europe was started by Rene Descartes, Sir Issac Newton and John Locke. Industrial revolution was the cause for 17th and 18th century philosophical achievements and science and technology. It also resulted in the development of concept of cartesianism, anti-cartesianism and enlightenment. It also impacted the historical writing. […]

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Internal Criticism

Internal Criticism               Internal criticism is applied to check the credibility of the document whether the contents given in it are believable or not. It is because; many writers will not have adequate knowledge of the given situation. Some will write on the situation, with motivation or prejudice. Sometime they will not reveal the truth […]

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