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KARL MARX AND SOCIALISM

Karl Marx, founder of scientific socialism, industrial revolution and democratic movements stimulated the study of social and economic history. In 1848, Engels and Marx issued the communist manifesto. In 1867, he published his first volume of his great work of political economy, ‘Das Kapital’. In this work, he explained the doctrines of socialism. The fundamental […]

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J.S.MILL – ROMANTIC IDEALISM

In Germany romantic idealism was popular. In England and France before it was enlightenment, romantic idealism was against enlightenment. Rousseau, the French philosopher was the founder of Romantic idealism. Its idea was to give freedom to individuals, innocence of primitive man. Rousseau believed that tyranny and wickedness were associated with advanced in civilizations. Rousseau’s slogan […]

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EDWARD GIBBON: ENLIGHTENMENT

Enlightenment was the climax of intellectual revolution which begun in England in 17th century and gained strength in France in 18th century. Opposition to religion and theology and sought secularism in every realm of life and thought. Enlightenment is based on reason. “Reason is the only guide to wisdom”. The real founders of wisdom were […]

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Research Methodology – Analyzing the Data – Authenticity of Data: Objectivity and Subjectivity:

Objectivity and Subjectivity                 Objectivity is the capital importance for the growth of healthy historical studies. Herodotus and Greeks freed history from mythology. Voltaire stressed upon the importance of reason. Ranke stressed the importance of objectivity in historical writing. These developments contributed objectivity in historical writing. This contributed to the emergence of history as an independent […]

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Research Methodology – Collection of Data: Heuristics

The technique of data collection is called as ‘Heuristics’. It is derived from the Greek word ‘Heuriskein’ which means ‘to find’. It is for the skillfulness in the collection of evidences, memory for details and self discipline in recording notes. It involves three aspects – (i) identification of places where sources are found. (ii) Identification […]

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Research Methodology – Hypothesis

Hypothesis means an idea that is formulated as a starting point for discussion. A working hypothesis is intended to bring out the importance of the scope of study, indicate the related studies so far undertaken, lost out the data to be collected, explain the methods of approach and give glimpse in the conclusions that are […]

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Research Methodology – Requirements of a Researcher

A researcher has to fulfill certain qualifications for understanding a research. Intellectual curiosity. Personal ambition to gain recognition. To serve a social need. For a job.     A researcher should be given freedom to define his or her own research problem. In this process the supervisor can guide and shape the beginners and not to […]

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Research Methodology – Selection of Topic for Research

 Historical research aims at making a new contribution to discover the historical truths in the events and developments. This process of research involves selection of proper topics, identify sources, collect data, analyze the data and finally present it to make the contribution. Selecting Topic or Selection of Problem:               No enquiry can be done until […]

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Bibliography

The Bibliography or List of References appears after the Body of the Document.  It is a complete listing of all cited resources used to create your document.  Even though Journal Model authors may have individual Reference sections for each article, this complete Reference list of all citations must appear at the end of the entire manuscript. […]

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Footnotes

What Are Footnotes? Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. […]

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