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Fall of Ottoman Empire

At its peak in the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire was one of the biggest military and economic powers in the world, controlling an expanse that included not just its base in Asia Minor but also much of southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The empire controlled territory that stretched from the Danube to the Nile, with […]

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) was an army officer who founded an independent Republic of Turkey out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire. He then served as Turkey’s first president from 1923 until his death in 1938, implementing reforms that rapidly secularized and westernized the country. Under his leadership, the role of Islam in public […]

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Origins and Falloff the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history. This Islamic-run superpower ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years. The chief leader, known as the Sultan, was given absolute religious and political authority over his people. While Western Europeans generally […]

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Iran Revolution – Ayatollah Khomeini

Introduction Introduction Between the august 1978 and February 1979, a period of less than the seven months, iran witnessed a revolution that brought down the Pahlavi regime and abolished the institution of monarchy, wiped out all privileges of the Pahlavi elite, and significally weakened its secularised middle classes. In its stead Ayatollah Khomeini and his […]

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SAAD ZAGHLOUL (EGYPT)

INTRODUCTION 1.      SaadZaghloul was the first President of independent Egypt. Cromir was Zaghloul’s friend. In Cromir’s government, Zaghloul was made a cabinet minister. Zaghloul also became the leader of WAFD party. 2.      During WWI, he agitated against Britain, so police arrested him. After the war, some Egypt political leaders asked British commissioner to give Egypt […]

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Ibn Saudi (Saudi Arabia)

Ibn Saudi was the founder of modern day Saudi Arabia. The first relationship with the British was officially declaSred by Al Saud in 1902. Ibn Saud wanted Saudi Arabia to be the dominant power in the Arabian peninsula. He had a major drawback –during complex situations, he was not able to take decisive actions. In […]

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Contemporary West Asia

The Middle East region encompassing many sovereign states of West Asia and North Africa is a centre of world’s earliest civilization. Many countries of the region containing large quantities of crude oil acquired strategic and economic importance since second half of the 20th century. The region covering Baharain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, […]

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UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARDS MIDDLE EAST

INTRODUCTION: U.S Policy towards Middle East has been framed by a certain strategic  conception of world order that is widely shared, though there are tactical disagreements, sometimes sharp ones, even we can see this during the debate in the United states over the Gulf Crisis. There are also important changes in the world, to which […]

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The Impact on Oil Development

How economists define ‘development’ has long been a source of debate and discussion. For the oil producers of the region, the traditional definition of growth in per capita gross national income has always been of limited value. First, because as a mean average it takes no account of income distribution which is particularly relevant where […]

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Oil Shock

The fate of the Iranian nationalization, ousted Dr Mossadegh, the architect of the nationalization process, faced a death sentence from the new government following the coup of 1954 designed by the British and Americans to resolve the nationalization dispute. Second, there was concern that nationalization would break up the majors’ control of the international oil […]

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