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ABDUL KALAM, AVUL PAKIR JAINULABDEEN (A. P. J.) (15 oct 1931–27th jul 2015),11th president of India (2002–2007).

Born in Tamil Nadu in 1931 to a poor working-class Muslim family, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam became India’s eleventh president in 2002, the third Muslim to serve as the head of India’s republic. A distinguished prominent scientist and administrator, Abdul Kalam had no political experience prior to his election as president. His unpretentious, […]

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Growth of Art and Architecture under Vijayanagar

Growth of Art and Architecture under Vijayanagar Growth of Art      During the administration of Vijayanagar rulers, they concentrated more on the development of art and architecture.  They constructed a number of palaces, temples and Mandapams throughout their empire.  They beautified them with various types of attractive sculptures.  The development of art of that period […]

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Legacy of Vijayanagar

Legacy of Vijayanagar Education and Literature Vijayanagar rulers showed less interest for the growth of education.  Even then education flourished at various centres.  In the absence of the definite system, people depended on local scholars to get their education.  Generally the development of education in this kingdom was based on castes and industrial growth.  Scholars […]

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Disintegration of Vijayanagar

Disintegration of Vijayanagar Talikota Battle (1565)      The historical battle at Talikota determined the fate of the Vijayanagar Empire.  The battle was held at Rekshasi-Tangadi twenty five miles away from Talikota.  Hence, the Talikota battle was also known as Rekshasi-Tangadi battle.  This battle decided the destiny of the Hindu and Muslim kingdom in Tamil Nadu. […]

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Vijayanagar Empire – Nayankara System

Vijayanagar Empire – Nayankara System      Vijayanagar rulers gave due importance to provincial administration.  The administration which existed in the provinces was called as ‘Nayankara system’.  It was similar to that of feudalism in Europe.  According to the system, all the land were owned by the rulers.  He distributed the lands to his generals.  They […]

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Vijayanagar Rule in Tamil Nadu

Vijayanagar Rule in Tamil Nadu Introduction Vijayanagar Empire was founded on the advice of the Hindu saint Vidyaranya on the banks of the river Tungabhadra very near to Chirunkeri madams founded by Adhi Sankarachariya.  Vidyaranyar served as its head at the time of founding the Vijayanagar Empire. The Vijayanagar Empire was founded in 1336 and […]

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