South East Asian Treaty Organisation


The SEATO was nor not of communist fear.  After the establishment of the communist regime in china in 1949, the fear communist advance spread in SEA.  In order to check the communist influence in that region & the neighboring pacific region the U.S. & the western powers tried to establish a regional collective defense system.

In April 1954, Dulles the secretary of state of the U.S. asked the British government to examine the possibility of establishing a collective defense system of SEA & the neighboring pacific nations with a few weeks of the Geneva settlements on indo-china the conference was summoned to meet the Philippines on 6th September 1954.  On 8th September 1954 the U.S., British, France, Australia, Thailand, Philippines, Pakistan signed at manila the treaty known as treaty of collective defense of SEA.  Under the terms of this treaty the signatory states under took.

  • To settle their disputes by peaceful means.
  • To consider the enemy attack upon any one of them as an attack upon all of them.
  • To help the aggrieved state in all possible ways &
  • To co-operate with each other in the field of economy & culture. Unlike the NATO, SEATO had no permanent army of its own.

The objects of the SEATO were to put a stop to further spread of communist influence in SEA.  For that purpose a council of consisting of representative of all the parties was established “the council shall provide consultation with regard to military & any other planning as the situation obtaining the treaty area from time to time required”.  Nothing in treaty affected the treaty obligation of any of the party under the UN character.

The SEATO established it Head Quarters at Bangkok.  The treaty bitterly denounced the neutrals including India the exclusive of India, Indonesia, Burma & other neutral nation reduced the effectiveness of the organization to win over the Asian nation.  The spite of the respect paid by the SEATO to the UN, UN was an alliance to the pro-western countries.  Afro-Asian countries looked upon.  SEATO as an attempt to extend “cold war” in SEA.  In general SEATO was not a successful organization even in fulfilling its basic aims of arresting the communist principle in SEA.