Exploration and Exploitation in India – Advent of Europeans -2



First carnatic war(1746-1748):

The cause of the carnatic wars is the question of succession to the Austrian throne.  French was defeated.  Treaty of Ai la Chapelle signed.

Second carnatic war(1749-1756):

The main cause of the second carnatic war is the question succession to the throne of Hyderabad. Treaty of Pondicherry signed.

Third carnatic war(

The cause of the third carnatic war is the seven years war that broke out in Europe between the English and the French.  Treaty of paris signed.


The carnatic wars thus prepared the ground for the English to establish their supremacy in India in the long run.

Causes for failure of France and success of British:

Following are some of the main causes which were responsible for the failure of the French and British.

  • Commercial superiority and Better Financial position
  • Private character of the English company
  • Naval supremacy of the East India Company
  • Better English Naval Base
  • English company was backed by English government
  • Better men service of English
  • Superior settlements of British
  • Recall of Dupleix
  • Mistakes of Lally
  • French subordinated their Commercial Interest to Territorial Ambitions.


DATE: June 23, 1757.


Combatants:  The British East India Company against Siraj-ud-daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and a small French force.  The British were assisted by traitors in the Nawab’s of high command.

Generals: Colonel Robert Clive against Siraj-Ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal.

Robert Clive of the British East India Company was actually the one who was declared victor of the Battle of Plassey, which took place 70 miles north of Calcutta in 1757. Clive, headed 1,000 English and 2,000 Indian (sepoy) soldiers. He, with eight pieces of artillery, routed 50,000 soldiers and 50 French-manned cannons of his opponent Siraj-ud-Daula, the Governor, or Nawab of Bengal. It was the victory of Plassey which established British supremacy in Bengal.

Clive thought that the best way to make safe the Company’s interests in Bengal was to replace Siraj with a new and more docile nawab. He found a candidate in an unhappy elderly general named Mir Jafar and after complicated conspiratorial talks and the promise of huge bribes to all concerned, a secret agreement was smuggled into the women’s quarters of Mir Jafar’s house, which was being watched by Siraj’s spies, and Mir Jafar signed.



The British government made Clive the Baron of Blassey.  Events that developed after Clive victory at the battle of Blassey would change the British east India company from a trading company to a governing power and draw Britain on conquer the whole of India.  Thus, the Battle of plassey was a historic turning point and its principal participant Robert Clive, an empire builder.




Buxar conflict at Buxar in northeastern India between the forces of the British East India Company, commanded by Major Hector Munro, and the combined army of an alliance of Indian states including Bengal, Awadh, and the Mughal Empire.  This decisive battle confirmed British power over Bengal and Bihar after their initial success at the Battle of Plessey in 1757 and marked the end of the attempt to rule Bengal through a puppet Nawab.  The British company victory at buxar resulted in a large area of the Indian subcontinent coming under British control.

The battle resulted in the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad, in which the Mughal emperor surrendered sovereignty of Bengal to the British.  Lord Robert Clive, the victor at the Plessey became the first governor of Bengal.