Agrarian struggles in the 20th century – Moplah peasant movement

Some of the causes of Moplah peasant movement are given below

  1. The oeasants of moplah were muslims pesants.  Their landlords who were called Jenmis were mostly hindus.  the relations between  the jenmis and the moplas were historicaaly quite unfriendly.  In other words the realtions were both economically and religiously antagonistic.  Since 1835 the hindu land lords supperessed the mpolas tenants.  Thus, the basic cause of Moplah agitation was the operation against the jenmis
  2. The land tenure system in Malabar was quite unfavourable to the mopah tenants.  There was total insecurity of tenure to the Moplah and the could be ejected from their oand without any appropriate notice.
  3. The immediate cause of Moplah agitation was the renewal of fee at an exorbitant rate fixed by the jenmis.  This sas unbearable for the Moplahs
  4. The exactions practised by jenmis were of very high order.  More than often the Moplah were discriminated against the tenants.

The course of events that let to the Moplah movement can be described as and

  1. The first impetus for Moplah esistance againt the landlords came from th Malabar district cingress committee held at Majeri in april 1921.  This conference supported the tenants’ cause and demanded legislation to rehulate landlord-tenant relation
  2. Following the minjeri conference of 1920, the Moplah tenants formed an association which had its branches in the whole kerala.  This brought the Moplah tenants under one organisation
  3. It another motivating factor for 1921 moplah agiatation was the khilafat movement which constituted a wider part of national struggle for independence.  This movement developed its roots in Malabar also.  The moplahs took active part in khilafat movement also.  Actually, in practice, the meetings of the Moplah and the khilafat movement could hardly be separated
  4. Bristish governmant was weakened as a result of ww1.  It was not in postion to take strong military action against  the moplahs.  As a result of this, the moplahs began to exhibit increasing turbulence and defiance of authority.  The final break came only when district magistrate of eranad taluka, on valluvanaadu and taulks – all moplahs strongholds.
  5. In  the agitation the targets of Moplah attacks were the unpopular jenmis, mostly hidus, police staions, treasuries and officers and britishers planters.  The hindu landlords who were lenient in their relations with the moplahs way spared by the latter.  Interestingly, the Moplah rebels travelled several miles through terrtitory populated by hindus and attacked only the land lords.  This gave the communal flaovour to the peasants agitation.  As a matter fact the Malabar in general lost all their  sympathy with the moplahs

The comunalistaions of the rebellion competed the isolations of Moplahs.  A british repression did the rest and by December 1921all resistants had come to a stop the movement of Moplah was a failure story