Syria is home to perhaps the most established development on the planet, with a rich imaginative and social legacy. From its antiquated roots to its ongoing political shakiness and the Syrian Civil War, the nation has a complex and, on occasion, wild history.

Ancient Syria

Current Syria, a nation situated in the Middle East on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is one of the most old possessed areas on Earth. The most established human stays found in Syria go back to about 700,000 years prior. Archeologists have revealed skeletons and bones of Neanderthals that lived in the locale during this period. Ebla, a city in Syria that is thought to have existed around 3,000 B.C., is probably the most established settlement to be unearthed.

All through antiquated occasions, Syria was involved and controlled by a few realms, including the Egyptians, Hittites, Sumerians, Mitanni, Assyrians, Babylonians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Arameans, Amorites, Persians, Greeks and Romans. Antiquated Syria was a district alluded to frequently in the Bible. In one surely understood record, the witness Paul refered to the “way to Damascus”— the biggest city in Syria—as where he had dreams that prompted his Christian change. At the point when the Roman Empire fell, Syria turned out to be a piece of the Eastern or Byzantine Empire.

In 637 A.D., Muslim armed forces crushed the Byzantine Empire and assumed responsibility for Syria. The Islamic religion spread rapidly all through the area, and its various groups rose to control. Damascus inevitably turned into the capital of the Islamic world, however was supplanted by Baghdad in Iraq around 750 A.D. This change prompted financial decrease in Syria, and for the following a few centuries, the district ended up flimsy and was administered by different gatherings. In 1516, the Ottoman Empire vanquished Syria and stayed in power until 1918. This was considered a generally serene and stable period in Syria’s history.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement

During World War I, French and British representatives covertly consented to separate the Ottoman Empire into zones, as a major aspect of the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916. Under the Sykes-Picot Agreement, most Arab arrives under the standard of the Ottoman Empire were isolated into British or French ranges of prominence with the finish of World War I.

English and Arab troops caught Damascus and Aleppo in 1918, and the French assumed responsibility for cutting edge Syria and Lebanon in 1920. These courses of action put a conclusion to about 400 years of Ottoman principle in the area. The French rule prompted uprisings and rebellions among the general population in Syria. From 1925 to 1927, Syrians joined against the French occupation in what’s currently known as the Great Syrian Revolt. In 1936, France and Syria arranged a bargain of autonomy, which enabled Syria to stay autonomous yet gave France military and financial power. During World War II, British and Free French troops involved Syria—yet not long after the war finished, Syria authoritatively turned into an autonomous nation in 1946.

Syria as an Independent Nation

The years promptly following Syria’s proclaimed autonomy were set apart by insecurity and rehashed government upsets. Syria united with Egypt and turned into the United Arab Republic in 1958, yet the association split a couple of brief years after the fact in 1961. The 1960s brought increasingly military upsets, revolts and mobs. In 1963, the Arab Socialist Baath Party, which was dynamic all through the Middle East since the late 1940s, held onto intensity of Syria in an upset known as the Baath Revolution. In 1967, during the Six Day War, Israel held onto the Golan Heights, a rough level situated in southwestern Syria. Strife over this desired territory proceeded for quite a long time is as yet progressing.

Hafez al-Assad

In 1970, Hafez al-Assad, the Syrian priest of protection, ousted the accepted pioneer of Syria, Salah Jadid. He stayed in power as president for a long time, until his passing in 2000. Hafez al-Assad was a piece of the Islam Alawite, which is a minority Shiite group. During his administration, Hafez was credited with reinforcing the Syrian military with the assistance of the Soviets. Syria and Egypt did battle with Israel in 1973. Not long after this contention, Syria additionally engaged in the common war in Lebanon, where it has kept up a military nearness from that point forward. In 1982, the Muslim Brotherhood composed an insubordination to the Assad system in the city of Hama, and Assad reacted by capturing, tormenting and executing political radicals. Evaluations shift, however numerous specialists accept the counter ended the lives of around 20,000 regular folks. That year, Israel attacked Lebanon and assaulted the Syrian armed force positioned there. In any case, by 1983, Israel and Lebanon declared that the threatening vibe between the two nations was finished. At a mind-blowing finish, Hafez endeavored to make progressively quiet relations with Israel and Iraq.

Bashar al-Assad

At the point when Hafez al-Assad kicked the bucket in 2000, his child Bashar moved toward becoming president at age 34. After Bashar took control, the constitution was changed to decrease the base age of the president from 40 to 34. A therapeutic understudy, Bashar wasn’t the primary decision for successor. His more seasoned sibling, Bassel, was the next to assume his dad’s position, however he was slaughtered in a car crash in 1994. Toward the beginning of his administration, Bashar al-Assad discharged 600 political detainees, and Syrians were cheerful that their new pioneer would allow a greater number of opportunities and force less mistreatment than his dad. Be that as it may, inside a year, Bashar utilized dangers and captures to stop genius change activism.

Syria and the ‘Axis of Evil’

In 2002, the United States blamed Syria for getting weapons of mass obliteration and recorded the country as an individual from the purported “baneful forces that be” nations. The Syrian government was additionally blamed for being engaged with the death of Rafic Hariri, the Lebanese head administrator, in 2005. Following a couple of long stretches of what appeared potential tact among Assad and different countries, the United States reestablished sanctions against Syria in 2010, saying that the system bolstered fear monger gatherings.Numerous human rights gatherings announced that Assad normally tormented, detained and slaughtered political enemies all through his administration. Revolts in Egypt and Tunisia, which wound up known as the “Middle Easterner Spring,” broke out in mid 2011. In March of 2011, a gathering of adolescents and youngsters were captured and tormented for composing hostile to government spray painting that was believed to be roused by the Arab Spring defiance. Quiet dissents broke out in Syria after the spray painting occurrence and ended up far reaching. Assad and the Syrian government reacted by capturing and slaughtering several protestors and their relatives.These occasions joined with different conditions, including a slacking economy, a serious dry spell, an absence of general opportunities and a strained religious air, prompted non military personnel obstruction and, at last, an uprising.

Syrian Civil War

By July 2011, rebels had shaped the Free Syrian Army (FSA), and pockets of insurgence broke out. Be that as it may, by 2012, Syria was overwhelmed in an out and out common war.

Assessments differ, yet as per the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, in any event 321,000 individuals have been slaughtered since the beginning of the war or are missing. Many individuals were executed outside of Damascus in 2013 during a substance weapons assault. The United States said the ambush was done by the Syrian government, yet the system accused agitator powers. What began as a war between the Assad government and Syrian revolutionaries turned out to be increasingly convoluted as the fight advanced. New powers, including the Islamic State (ISIS), joined the battle against the Syrian system. In 2014, ISIS took over enormous zones of Iraq and Syria. Since that time, U.S.- drove powers have deliberately shelled ISIS focuses all through the area. The United States has expressed their resistance to the Assad system however has been hesitant to get profoundly associated with the war. Russia and Iran have announced themselves partners of the Syrian government. In 2015, Russia propelled airstrikes on agitator focuses in Syria just because. Syria’s administration powers assumed responsibility for Aleppo in late 2016, finishing over four years of dissident standard in the city. On April 7, 2017, the United States started its initially immediate military activity against Assad’s powers in the wake of blaming them for completing another substance weapons assault on regular folks.

Syrian Refugees

The Syrian common war has caused a universal helpful emergency for the nation’s regular citizens. As indicated by the philanthropic association World Vision, in excess of 11 million Syrians—generally 50% of the nation’s populace—have been dislodged from their homes as of April 2017. Numerous displaced people have moved to neighboring nations, for example, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt or Iraq. Others have migrated to regions inside Syria itself. Europe has likewise been a significant haven for outcasts, with Germany taking in the most. As per the Migration Policy Institute, 18,007 Syrian evacuees resettled to the United States between October 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016.

References: (2017). Syria – HISTORY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019]. (n.d.). Middle East :: Syria — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].

Syrian Digital Library of Cuneiform. (n.d.). [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019]. (2018). Syria’s civil war explained from the beginning. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].

BBC News. (2019). Syria profile.

Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019]. (2019). Syria – Countries – Office of the Historian. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].

Kenner, D. (2019). Massacre City.

Foreign Policy. Available at:

Massacre City
[Accessed 21 Jul. 2019]. (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].

HISTORY. (2017). Executive Order.

Crowley, S. (2017). Full Executive Order Text: Trump’s Action Limiting Refugees Into the U.S.. Available at: [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].