Characteristics of Neolithic Age

The Neolithic Age saw the man turning into food producer from food gatherer. It also witnessed the use of pottery for the first time. People used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stone. The use of metal was unknown.

1. Agriculture: The people of Neolithic Age cultivated ragi, horse gram, cotton, rice, wheat, and barley and hence were termed as food producers. They domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats.

2. Tools: The people used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stones. They used stone hoes and digging sticks for digging the ground. The ring stones of 1-1/2 kg of weight were fixed at the ends of these digging sticks. They also used tools and weapons made of bone; found in Burzahom (Kashmir) and Chirand (Bihar).

3. Weapons: The people primarily used axes as weapons. The North-western part of Neolithic settlement used rectangular axes having curved cutting edge. The Southern part used axes with oval sides and pointed butt while polished stone axes with rectangular butt and shouldered hoes were use in the north-eastern part.

4. Housing: The people of Neolithic Age lived in rectangular or circular houses which were made of mud and reed. The people of Mehrgarh lived in mud-brick houses while pit-dwelling is reported from Burzahom, the Neolithic site found in Kashmir.

5. Pottery: With the advent of Agriculture, people were required to store their food grains as well as to do cooking, arrange for drinking water, and eating the finished product. That’s why pottery first appeared in the Neolithic Age. The pottery of the period was classified under grey ware, black-burnished ware, and mat-impressed ware.

6. Architecture: The Neolithic Age is significant for its Megalithic Architecture.

7. Technology: In the initial stage of the Neolithic Age, hand-made pottery was made but later on the foot-wheels were used to make pots.

8. Community Life: Neolithic people had common right over property. They led a settled life.